Exophthalmos – causes, symptoms and treatment
The scheme of treatment of exophthalmos should be selected taking into account the etiological factor that provoked the development of this disorder. If the protrusion of the eye occurred against the background of the resulting injury, the patient is prescribed a cantotomy in the region of external eyelid adhesion. For anesthesia, injection of 0.5 ml of a 2% novocaine solution is indicated. Before dissecting the ligament it must be fixed with a special clamp, which will not open to bleeding.
When, as a result of trauma, the eye retains normal mobility, but due to a massive hemorrhage in the patient, the intraocular pressure increases, then drainage of the retrobulbar space needs to be performed.
Mandatory symptomatic treatment of exophthalmos, regardless of the cause of its occurrence. Patients are recommended local use of drugs that will moisturize the cornea. They are buried throughout the day. At night, ointment is poured into the eyes. If the patient is diagnosed with keratopathy, then he is shown the use of antiseptics, as well as drugs aimed at enhancing tissue regeneration. Antibacterial drops and eye ointments are used in case of bacterial infection.
If exophthalmos have a severe course, then the patient is given a pulse-therapy with glucocorticoids. To do this, for 3 months the patient is intravenously injected Methylprednisolone. The scheme is drawn up individually. The total dose of the drug for the entire course should not exceed 8 g. Before starting pulse therapy, it is important to make sure that the patient does not have serious liver diseases, diabetes, acute infection and other contraindications to hormone steroid therapy.
Patients with endocrine ophthalmopathy need to normalize the hormonal balance in the body. To do this, they are prescribed thyreostatics and hormones. During therapy, the patient is shown the use of artificial tear preparations, as well as the reduction of intraocular pressure, if necessary.
If the medication correction does not allow achieving the desired effect, it is necessary to remove the thyroid gland and prescribe a therapy designed to replace the hormones it produces.
The prognosis for recovery depends on the cause that led to the development of exophthalmos. If the etiology of the disorder is reduced to an endocrine imbalance of hormones, then most often it is possible to achieve recovery. The prognosis worsens with the shift of the eyeball due to growing malignant neoplasms and in tumors of the cerebellum. Prophylaxis of exophthalmos
Prophylactic measures of exophthalmos are reduced to the following recommendations:
Correction of hormonal balance of the organism.
Observing safety at work.
Protection of the organs of vision from injuries. If the patient has the first signs of exophthalmos, or other problems with vision, then it is necessary to go to a consultation with an ophthalmologist and undergo a qualitative examination.