Iron deficiency anemia in children

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Iron deficiency anemia in children

Pediatric anemia responds well to treatment when the cause of its occurrence is established. Otherwise, the fight against the disease will be long and meaningless. If anemia develops against a background of massive blood loss, then the decision on how to treat it should be urgent. A child needs a transfusion of erythrocyte mass or he will die.

When a child is found to have chronic blood loss, for example, with ulcerative colitis, efforts should be directed toward eliminating the underlying disease.

With a lot of menstrual flow, the girl needs to be taken to a gynecologist. Perhaps she will need a correction of the hormonal background. You may also need the help of an endocrinologist.

If parasites are found in the stool, then all members of the family should be de-worming.

Complex measures aimed at the treatment of iron deficiency anemia:

  • The child’s menu needs to be adjusted.

  • It is compulsory to comply with routine measures, according to the age of the child. He should have enough time to spend in the open air, engage in physical activity, go to bed on time.

  • According to the doctor’s recommendation, the child should receive iron preparations.

  • . Depending on the symptoms of the disease, efforts should be directed to their elimination.

A diet is an indispensable condition that allows you to get rid of anemia. The child should eat fully. The best product for the baby is the mother’s milk. It contains iron, which is fully absorbed by the intestines of crumbs.

During the first year of life, metabolic processes in the baby are very active, so that the supply of iron that he received from his mother is very quickly depleted. In this regard, the supply of microelements should be carried out during the introduction of complementary foods, with food.

If an infant is diagnosed with anemia, then the lure is given to him a month earlier. Such children are not recommended to offer rice porridge, mango and bearberry. The emphasis should be on the yak, buckwheat and millet. Meat to kids with anemia is offered already starting from six months. If the child is on artificial feeding, then he should receive mixtures that are additionally enriched with iron.

If a child suffers from abnormalities in the digestive system, he can be offered herbs. It is useful to give the baby broths of wild rose, nettle, dill, mint, elecampane, red clover, etc. However, before starting treatment, you need to consult a doctor. It is also necessary to closely monitor the reaction of the body crumbs to such drinks and not miss the development of an allergic reaction.

If anemia is diagnosed in a child older than a year, then its diet should be enriched with products that are sources of iron, among them:

  • Red meat: beef and veal.

  • Beef tongue and veal buds.

  • Fish.

  • Pig’s liver.

  • Oysters and sea kale.

  • Wheat bran.

  • Yolk of chicken eggs.

  • Oatmeal flakes.

  • Legumes.

  • Buckwheat.

  • Walnuts and walnuts, pistachios.

  • Fruits: apples, peaches, etc.

There are also products that should be excluded from the menu of the child with anemia, or to minimize their consumption. They do not allow the iron to be absorbed normally, which only contributes to its strengthening.

These include:

  • Chocolate, black tea, cocoa, beets, spinach, peanuts, almonds, sesame seeds, lemon, soy products, sunflower seeds . These products contain oxalates, which prevent the iron from being fully absorbed.

  • Phosphates have a similar effect as oxalates. They are especially numerous in sausage, melted cheese, dairy canned.

  • In addition to oxalates, tea contains tannins. Their consumption of children with anemia should be limited.

  • A preservative such as ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid is dangerous for a child with anemia. In addition, absorption of iron is adversely affected by the intake of certain drugs, for example, antacids and antibiotics from the tetracycline group.

    Strengthen absorption in the stomach of iron capable of the following substances: ascorbic, malic and citric acid, fructose. The same group includes the medicines Cysteine ​​and Nicotinamide.

    Treatment of anemia is impossible without taking medications containing iron. It is allowed to use complex medicines, which apart from this trace elements contain other useful additives.

    For the treatment of anemia in childhood use the following drugs:

    • Ferroplex.

    • Iron Fumarate

    • Hemofer.

    • Maltofer.

    • Ferrum lek

    • Aktiferrin.

    • Totem

    • Tardiferon.

    • Ferronat.

    • Maltofer foul, etc.

    If the child is small, he is prescribed drugs in a liquid form (in suspension, drops or syrup). Maltopher and Ferlatum are well absorbed by the body. The main active substances on which these funds are based do not interact with products and rarely provoke the development of adverse health effects.

    The dose of the drug should be selected by the doctor, based on the results of the tests. It can be increased gradually, smoothly leading to the required. If the child takes the drug orally, then give them 1-2 hours before meals. Drink the medicine with water or juices.

    After 7-14 days, there should be a positive trend in treatment. In the blood of the child, the number of reticulocytes and hemoglobin will increase. Normally, the hemoglobin level should rise to 10 g / l after 7 days. Therefore, blood tests should be taken regularly.

    If 30 days after the start of therapy, the hemoglobin level did not return to normal, then you need to look for a different cause of anemia.

    It can hide in the following states:

    • The child has a blood loss, the source of which can not be established.

    • The iron dosage is too low to make up for its deficiency.

    • The body lacks vitamin B12.

    • The child has worms or inflammation of the organs that enter the digestive system. Also, one can not exclude the presence of any neoplasm in the body.

    If the child does not tolerate the intake of iron-containing drugs, he is prescribed injections of the drug. Also, injections are used in cases when the child develops acute anemia, which is characterized by severe course and in the absence of effect after 14 days from the beginning of treatment. Injection administration of the drug is indicated if it is impossible to assimilate iron in the intestine, for example, against the background of ulcerative colitis.

    Since in the case of iron deficiency anemia the body of the child with a high probability of suffering from a lack of vitamin, doctors prescribe the reception of vitamin-mineral complexes. Also, on the recommendation of a doctor, homeopathic preparations are acceptable.

    In cases of severe anemia, rch-EPO preparations are prescribed – epoins a and b. This allows you to refuse to transfuse the baby with erythrocyte mass, as blood transfusion is associated with a high risk of complications. Recombinant human erythropoietin is administered subcutaneously. These can be preparations Eprex and Epokran.

    Contraindications for the treatment of iron preparations are:

    • Sideroachrestic anemia (iron-deficiency anemia). With this disturbance during the production of hemoglobin in the bone marrow, iron is not used, which causes its low concentration in red blood cells.

    • hemosiderosis. The causes of the development of this disease remain unknown. It is possible that the pathology is of an autoimmune nature. Vessels are damaged, erythrocytes go beyond the bloodstream, which leads to the accumulation of hemosiderin in the skin.

    • Hemochromatosis is a disease that is accompanied by a violation of iron absorption in the intestine. It begins to accumulate in the cells of internal organs and provokes their fibrosis. If the lack of iron in the child’s body is only the assumption of the parents or the doctor, there were no tests to determine its level in the blood.

    • Hemolytic anemia, accompanied by mass death of erythrocytes.

    Therefore, before the start of treatment, you need to conduct a comprehensive diagnosis, which allows you to exclude all contraindications to the appointment of iron preparations. Prognosis and prevention

    If you have established the reason why the child has anemia, and the treatment was prescribed on time, then the prognosis for a full recovery is favorable. When therapy is late, iron deficiency will increase. This will entail a delay in the child’s physical and mental development, impaired immunity and frequent illnesses.

    Preventive measures designed to prevent anemia should be carried out both during intrauterine development of the baby, and after his birth.

    Measures to prevent fetal anemia that must be performed by a pregnant woman:

    • She needs to observe the regime of the day: enough time to rest, as much as possible walk in the fresh air.

    • You must adhere to the rules of healthy eating.

    • According to the doctor’s prescription, a woman needs to take iron supplements and vitamins.

    • Anemia in a pregnant woman should be detected and treated on time. Prophylaxis of anemia in the period after the birth of a child consists of the following activities:

      • If possible, the baby should be breast-fed.

      • Lure should be introduced according to age norms. Products need to be selected carefully.

      • If the baby is on artificial feeding, the formula should be adapted according to his age.

      • It is important to follow the basic rules of caring for the baby.

      • The pediatrician should regularly examine the child. Ignore planned visits to the doctor is unacceptable.

      • It is necessary to deal with the prevention of rickets and anemia. Every child, regardless of his age, should spend as much time as possible in the open air, eat right, exercise, attend a massage therapist. An indispensable condition for the full-fledged growth and development of children is compliance with regime measures. If a child is at risk for developing anemia, then he is prescribed a course of iron preparations.

        They are shown to the following children:

        • Gemini.

        • To children born before the due time.

        • Children with congenital anomalies.

        • Children with malabsorption syndrome.

        • Children during periods of rapid growth and development, as well as adolescents during puberty.

        • To girls during a profuse menses.

        • After bleeding, regardless of the etiologic factor.

        • After the operation. If a child was born prematurely, then from 2 months to 2 years, they are prescribed iron preparations with a prophylactic goal. Also, rh-EPO can be used.

          Recommendations to parents

          Iron deficiency anemia is a disease that often occurs in childhood. Prevention of anemia needs to be done during the intrauterine development of the baby. After his birth, activities aimed at preventing anemia should be continued. It is necessary to donate blood for analysis, which will reveal pathology in the early stages of its development. If treatment is started on time, then it will be possible to avoid serious complications of the disease.

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