Sickle-cell anemia

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Sickle-cell anemia

Diagnosis of sickle-cell anemia begins by interviewing patient complaints and collecting anamnesis. Symptoms that give the disease are typical for many pathologies, so laboratory research is required.

The main diagnostic methods are:

  • Blood sampling for clinical analysis. In this case, a decrease in the level of erythrocytes and hemoglobin in the blood to a mark of less than 3.5-4.0 * 10 12 / L and 120 g / L, respectively, will be detected.

  • Biochemical study blood can diagnose an increase in the level of bilirubin and free iron in the blood. The additional diagnostic procedures are:

    • Perform a blood test using sodium metabisulfite. When interacting with this substance, erythrocytes release oxygen, after which it is possible to visualize their crescent shape.

    • Treatment of blood with buffer formulations. In them, HbS is poorly soluble.

    • Performing hemoglobin electrophoresis, which makes it possible to visualize the modified red blood cells. Also, this method makes it possible to distinguish heterozygous mutation from homozygous.

    Other methods of examination that may be required:

    • Ultrasound examination of liver and spleen, as well as other internal organs for the detection of pathological changes in them.

    • Execution of an X-ray of the bones of the skeleton and spine. Treatment of sickle-cell anemia

      Treatment of sickle-cell anemia involves influencing the symptoms of the disease, and is also designed to prevent the development of complications.

      Therefore, during the therapy you need to focus on the following principles:

      • Fill the shortage of erythrocytes and hemoglobin.

      • Relieve pain.

      • Eliminate excess iron from the body.

      • Eliminate the consequences of the hemolytic crisis.

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      In order to normalize the level of erythrocytes and hemoglobin, transfusion of the erythrocyte mass may be required. Alternatively, the patient is given cytostatics (hydroxyurea), which can increase the hemoglobin level in the blood.

      To relieve the patient’s pain, he is prescribed analgesic drugs (Morphine, Tramadol, Promedol). When the disease is acute, it is necessary to inject drugs intravenously. After relieving, they are applied orally.

      You can remove excess iron from the body by using certain medications, for example, with the help of Deferoxamine.

      In case of hemolytic crisis, the patient is shown with oxygen therapy, adequate replenishment of fluid reserves, analgesics, preparations for cramping seizures, etc.

      . When infecting the body, the patient is prescribed antibiotics that can prevent sepsis. It can be such drugs as Cefuroxime, Amoxicillin, Erythromycin.

      All patients with sickle cell disease must adhere to the following medical recommendations:

      • Maintain a healthy lifestyle and completely abandon bad habits.

      • Exclude elevations to height.

      • Exclude excessive physical activity.

      • Drink enough water.

      • Avoid overheating and overcooling.

      • Eating healthy foods. Prophylaxis and prognosis

        Completely cure sickle cell anemia is impossible.

      However, if the patient adheres to all medical recommendations, he can live up to 50 years or more.

      To complications of anemia that can provoke the death of a patient, include:

      • Bacterial infections that can be very difficult

      • Sepsis.

      • Stroke.

      • Brain hemorrhage.

      • Disturbances in the functioning of the urinary, cardiovascular and hepatobiliary system.

      As for preventive measures, they are not available. This disease develops as a result of genetic mutations, which science is not yet able to prevent. If a particular person in the family had cases of sickle-cell anemia, then before starting to plan pregnancy, you should get a consultation of a geneticist. The doctor examines a man and a woman and determines the likelihood of a child with sickle-cell anemia.

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