Normocytic (normochromic) anemia
Most commonly, the following disorders lead to the development of normocytic anemia:
AIDS, pyelonephritis, tuberculosis, brucellosis
Autoimmune diseases : rheumatism, rheumatoid arthritis, scleroderma, spondylitis, etc.
Chronic liver diseases.
Malignant cancerous tumors. All these pathologies lead to disturbances in the process of iron utilization and metabolism. In addition, in the pathogenesis of normocytic normochromic anemia, the shorter life of erythrocytes and the reduction of erythropoiesis are important. Often, for the diagnosis of a single blood test is not enough, requires a comprehensive examination of the patient.
Normal anemia in aplastic anemia
Aplastic anemia is a rare blood disorder in which the level of all elements decreases. Most often this pathology has a hereditary nature, but sometimes it can develop during life.
Aplastic anemia is fraught with its complications, in particular, bleeding and infectious diseases that occur against a background of decreased immunity.
Blood counts will be as follows:
Anemia with a decrease in hemoglobin level below 80 g / l, and erythrocytes below 2.5 * 10 12 / L.
Increase in the number of reticulocytes.
Great leukopenia with absolute neutropenia.
Thrombocytopenia. A similar pattern of blood is characteristic of such disorders as: specific leukemia infiltration of the bone marrow and the spread of metastases of malignant tumors. Therefore, the diagnosis includes a bone marrow puncture, which allows to determine the exact cause of the disorder. With aplastic anemia, bone marrow always has a decreased erythropoietic function. Doctors call such a bone marrow “empty.” If the pathology has a severe course, then its cells will be completely replaced by fat tissue.
Normocytic normochromic anemia and posthemorrhagic anemia of acute course
If a person has lost a large amount of blood, then he develops posthemorrhagic anemia. In the first phase, the clinical picture can remain virtually unchanged, since the body supplies blood cells from its own depot.
During the second phase, the tissue fluid enters the bloodstream, which is designed to restore the lost volumes of plasma. In this period there are signs of normocytic normochromic anemia.
After five days, the body, in an effort to fill the deficit of red blood cells, will release into the blood of their predecessors reticulocytes (young red blood cells). This explains their leap in the blood.
If blood loss was stopped in time and the patient was treated adequately, the blood picture will return to normal after 14-21 days.