Posthemorrhagic anemia

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Posthemorrhagic anemia

The longer and more abundant the bleeding in a person, the more serious are the symptoms of posthemorrhagic anemia.

If the blood loss is acute, it is expressed by the following symptoms:

  • Strong weakness.

  • Pale skin integuments.

  • Pale mucous membranes.

  • Appearance of “flies” before the eyes, periodic darkness in the eyes.

  • Dizziness.

  • The appearance of noise in the ears.

  • Dryness in the oral cavity.

  • The drop in body temperature, which is especially noticeable in the upper and lower extremities.

  • Sticky sticky and cold sweat.

  • Increase in pulsation with a decrease in its strength.

  • Drop in blood pressure. If the bleeding develops in a child less than a year, then it will be much heavier to bear it than an adult.

    If blood loss is abundant and blood spills out of the vascular bed quickly, the victim may develop a collapse. Hypotension will be extremely pronounced, the pulse is barely palpable, or may be absent altogether. Breathing becomes superficial, often there are episodes of vomiting and convulsive seizures. Human consciousness is absent in most cases.

    Severe anemia can lead to death, which occurs against the background of acute hypoxia of internal organs. Terminates the work of the heart and respiratory center.

    Separately, we should designate the symptoms of chronic blood loss, in which anemia of mild degree develops.

    This is characterized by the following disruptions:

    • The skin becomes dry, cracks appear on it.

    • Any wounds on the skin heal very long, can fester.

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    • The pallor of the skin and mucous membranes is not very pronounced, but it is difficult not to notice it.

    • The nails become brittle, loose.

    • . Hair grows dull and begins to fall out.

    • The heart works in an intensified rhythm that often gets stuck.

    • Sweating is increased.

    • The body temperature can persist for a long time at the level of subfebrile markers.

    • The patient often has ulcers in his mouth, possibly the formation of carious teeth.

    These symptoms are not clearly expressed and can disturb the patient from time to time. This is because the body starts compensatory mechanisms and works at the peak of its capabilities. However, sooner or later, they will run out.

    Diagnosis of posthemorrhagic anemia

    Diagnosis of posthemorrhagic anemia begins with a survey of patient complaints and with his examination. The doctor should measure the arterial pressure of the patient, assess the nature of his mucous membranes and skin. If the doctor suspects the patient of such a diagnosis, he will send it to a series of examinations.

    Laboratory tests will be as follows:

    • A blood test to determine the level of hemoglobin and erythrocytes, which will be reduced.

    • Biochemical blood analysis.

    • Urine analysis with control of its daily volumes.

    • Determination of the total volume of circulating blood.

    Bone marrow function is performed only if the diagnosis remains in doubt. It is necessary to establish the cause of posthemorrhagic anemia. To do this, perform ultrasound examination of internal organs and organs of the small pelvis, FGDS, colonoscopy, sigmoidoscopy, and remove the electrocardiogram. The wife should visit a gynecologist.

    How to treat? / h2

    The scheme of therapeutic impact on the patient depends on what caused the development of posthemorrhagic anemia. The detected bleeding should be stopped as soon as possible. If blood loss is caused by external bleeding, then a tourniquet or bandage is applied on the wound, it is possible to suture the vessels and damaged tissues and organs. The victim should be urgently hospitalized.

    If blood loss is massive, then the following measures are shown:

    • Transfusion of erythrocyte mass, plasma and plasma substitutes (Reopoliglyukin, Gemodez, Polyglukin). This measure should be taken promptly, since large blood loss is associated with a high risk of death.

    • Prednisolone (a hormonal drug) is administered when the patient develops a shock state. Solutions of albumin, glucose, saline – all these substances are injected intravenously to the patient to restore the salt balance in organism.

    • For the replenishment of iron stores, injections of Sorbifer Durules or Ferroplex preparations can be used. However, it must be taken into account that their use is associated with a high probability of an allergic reaction.

    Severe anemia requires the administration of significant doses of blood. Doctors call this procedure a blood transplant. If, after recovery of the total blood volume, the patient normalizes blood pressure, and its qualitative composition improves, then this indicates that the therapy was chosen correctly. To improve the patient’s well-being, he is prescribed vitamins of group B.

    Symptomatic treatment should be aimed at restoring the heart and vessels, the brain, liver and kidneys, as well as other organs affected by hypoxia.

    Delayed-time therapy presupposes adherence to the patient’s diet, which is aimed at restoring the qualitative composition of the blood. To do this, you need to eat red low-fat meat, liver, eggs, sour-milk drinks, vegetables and fruits, cottage cheese, fish. A day should drink at least 2 liters of water, a decoction of rose hips is useful.

    The more massive the volume of lost blood, the worse the recovery forecast. If one moment loses? part of the total volume of blood, the likelihood of developing hypovolemic shock is extremely high. If blood loss is equated to? part, the survivor will not be able to survive. Provided that anemia develops with chronic blood loss, then most often it can be neutralized after the source of bleeding is found and eliminated.

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