Hyperchromic anemia is characterized by a decrease in the level of erythrocytes and hemoglobin in the blood. The disease develops against the background of disturbances in the work of the organs of hematopoiesis.
Depending on the cause that triggered the development of hyperchromic anemia, the following types are distinguished:
Megaloblast anemia Failure occurs at the level of DNA and RNA. Megaloblasts begin to form in the bone marrow. To provoke pathology may myelodysplastic syndrome, HIV and the intake of certain medications, for example, Azathioprine. anemia. DNA in this case is synthesized as expected, but the bone marrow does not produce megaloblasts. To the development of this type of anemia are able to lead liver pathologies, cancerous tumors, hypothyroidism, alcoholism, myeloproliferative diseases.
Women and men over 40 are at risk for developing hyperchromic anemia.
Symptoms of hyperchromic anemia
Symptoms that characterize hyperchromic anemia:
Skin and mucous membranes shells differ paleness. There may be some yellowness of the skin.
Hair begins to turn gray before time.
The person gets tired faster.
The digestive system works with impairments.
Hematopoietic functions are affected.
The language becomes painful.
The gums begin to bleed.
First of all, patients themselves pay attention to changes on the part of the language. In addition to the fact that he begins to ache, his appearance suffers. The surface of the organ becomes unnaturally smooth and shiny. After a while, spots appear on it, which tend to merge. This gives the impression that the language has become bright red. The pain intensifies when you try to make movements with your tongue. The body’s taste receptors are dulled.
Useful information: taking spicy food will increase the pain in the tongue.
Symptoms of anemia can not bother a person. The only visible sign of the disease is often the pale skin. In addition, the patient may note a decrease in working capacity, the occurrence of cardiac pain and abnormalities in the functioning of the digestive system.
As the disease progresses, these symptoms begin to increase.
Therefore, it is advisable to break them into 3 large groups:
Change in skin color. In addition, that they become pale, sometimes a person can notice their slight icterus. This also includes periodically arising noise in the ears and increased shortness of breath. It is against her background that a person most often experiences pain in the heart. Disturbances on the part of the digestive system: changes in taste preferences, decreased appetite, a feeling of heaviness in the epigastric region, diarrhea. The liver increases in size, the tongue becomes bright color. Changes in the hemopoietic system: the level of erythrocytes decreases, their shape and structure are disrupted. In addition, the patient is diagnosed with moderate leukopenia.
Sometimes a patient complains of a feeling of numbness in the limbs.
Hyperchromic anemia and myelodysplastic syndrome
Hyperchromic anemia can be combined with myelodysplastic syndrome. It contributes to the development of radiation, the passage of chemotherapy to get rid of tumors, treatment of leukemia.
As a result, the red bone marrow becomes unable to perform its functions in full. Symptoms that indicate a myelodysplastic syndrome are: tachycardia, frequent dizziness, shortness of breath against a background of physical rest. To diagnose this disorder, you need to contact a doctor and undergo laboratory tests.
Reasons for the development of hyperchromic anemia
In young people, hyperchromic anemia develops rarely. To a greater extent, elderly people are exposed to it.
The following states lead to hyperchromic anemia:
Deficiency of vitamin B12.
Deficiency of folic acid.
The main risk factor for hyperchromic anemia is the lack of vitamin B12. The following causes lead to B12-deficient anemia:
Atrophic gastritis. In this disease, the body produces insufficient quantity gastromucoprotein, which does not allow the vitamin B12 to be fully absorbed.
Diseases of the small and large intestines, in which the destruction of their walls occurs.
Diseases of the intestine of infectious nature.
A lack of folic acid may also lead to hyperchromic anemia. A similar problem often develops with alcoholism, as well as in people with viral hepatitis. Sometimes folic deficiency anemia can manifest on the background of pregnancy and when the principles of healthy eating are not observed.
The production of DNA has a direct relationship with folates and vitamin B12. With their deficiency, this important biological process stops. The division of the erythroblasts slows down, as a result of which they are transformed into megaloblasts.
If treatment of hyperchromic anemia is absent, then the disease will progress. This can lead to severe consequences, up to coma and death. Therefore, you need to contact a specialist as early as possible.
Treatment will be long, adhere to the therapeutic scheme should be strictly. Often the patient is prescribed a course of medicines. This will avoid relapse of the disease and prolong remission. In severe cases, bone marrow transplantation is required.
Easy anemia can be eliminated with the help of rational nutrition. The menu necessarily includes meat products and animal liver.
Cyanocobalamin is prescribed for B12-deficient and folia-deficient anemia. The dose is picked up by a doctor. If treatment yields positive results, the dose gradually decreases. In addition to treatment, the patient is prescribed folic acid. To understand whether the therapy is effective, the patient will need to regularly give blood for analysis. If the blood levels of reticulocytes increase, then the therapy was chosen correctly.
The effectiveness of treatment should be evaluated after 7 days from its inception. If there is no positive dynamics, then the therapeutic scheme should be reconsidered.
In severe anemia, transfusion of the erythrocyte mass is required. It is important before the beginning of treatment to accurately determine the causes that led to the development of anemia.
In childhood, hyperchromic anemia is dangerous due to a delay in mental and physical development. The child will be more susceptible to various diseases, his immunity is not able to cope with infections. Such children get sick long and hard.
Anemia is dangerous for pregnant women who may have premature births. The fetus will suffer from a lack of nutrients, a child can be born with underweight and developmental anomalies. Therefore, during pregnancy, you should regularly visit an obstetrician-gynecologist.
Other consequences of anemia include: cardiomyopathy, tachycardia, heart failure. Therefore, the treatment of this violation should be timely.
The author of the article: Maxim Evgenievich Shutov, hematologist, specially for the site ayzdorov.ru