Anemia in the infant: what are the symptoms and how to treat?

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Anemia in the infant: what are the symptoms and how to treat?

Delayed erythrocyte production or discontinuation of production causes anemia in the baby.

Types of anemia of the infants:

  • Anemia of premature infants – fixed in every child that appeared before the term, is determined even in the hospital.

  • Iron deficiency, or hypochromic – is fixed in 80% of all cases.

  • Hemolytic – occurs in the Rh-conflict between the mother and the child, as well as when the pregnant woman is infected with toxoplasmosis, rubella, herpes.

  • Algorithmic – form It is caused by a monotonous diet, poor in vitamins and microelements.

  • Anemia as a consequence of infection may be a symptom of a pathology.

  • Autoimmune erythrocytes of irregular shape with this type of anemia lead to oxygen starvation.

  • Anemia of Yaksha- / b – characterized by an increase in the liver, hyperthermia, pale skin, the appearance of dyspnea and noises in the heart, a sharp decrease in hemoglobin, although the number of red blood cells remains within normal limits. anemia , which has a high percentage of deaths, and hemoblastosis (leukemia) – arises from the suppression of erythrocyte activity by leukocytes due to impaired immunity, or due to impaired erythrocyte synthesis. The severity of anemia in infants is divided according to the level of hemoglobin and the concentration of red blood cells:

    • Light degree . Laboratory indicators: erythrocytes – 3 million / l, hemoglobin – 90-110 g / l. The condition does not require treatment, it is corrected by the introduction into the diet of a woman in the state of lactation of a more varied diet. With transient anemia, the pediatrician monitors the condition of the child and prescribes special medications for him / her.

    • The average degree . Laboratory indicators: erythrocytes – 2.5 3 million / l, hemoglobin – 70-90 g / l. At this degree of anemia the child lags behind in its physical and mental development from the age norm, the work of the gastrointestinal tract, cardiovascular system is disrupted. The child feels dizzy, he suffers from shortness of breath, often suffers from colds and infectious diseases, children with anemia of this degree are usually sluggish and weak. This degree of pathology most often needs to be monitored by a doctor in hospital, in the treatment with iron preparations.

    • Heavy Degree . Laboratory indicators: erythrocytes – less than 2.5 million / l, hemoglobin – below 70 g / l. The infants with this degree of anemia are affected by kidney and bowel disease, the hematopoiesis system, the respiratory and circulatory system, and the dystrophy. / H

    h2 Treatment of anemia in infants

    Anemia therapy is performed only after a thorough diagnosis, identifying the type and form of the disease. If newborns or infants have a diagnosis of “iron deficiency anemia 1 degree”, correction of this condition can be carried out outside the hospital only if changes are made to the diet and day regimen of the baby.

    Complex treatment – necessary measures:

    • Influence on the causes of anemia (replacement of the milk formula, correction of the mother’s diet).

    • The intake of vitamins and preparations with elevated iron content, for better their assimilation is given between feedings, possibly in a mixture with fruit juice, although they are already produced form of syrup.

    • Changes in the diet, following a diet including buckwheat porridge, egg yolk, apple puree, liver, meat, cheese, fruit juices, vegetable puree , rejection of manna, rice cereal, oatmeal.

    • Correction of the daily routine: long walks, massage, games with elements of physical education, gymnastics, additional sleep.

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    The minimum duration of treatment for anemia in an infant is 1 month or more.

    When a child is born with hypoxia, before the term, with great blood loss, with an increased content of red blood cells (30%).

    Therapy of anemia of 2nd degree : administration of drugs with elevated iron content (Aktiferin, Maltofer, Hemoferon), selected according to individual characteristics and needs babe. Most often, they are available in the form of oil and water-soluble drops.

    Therapy of grade 3 anemia : urgent hemoglobin in the infant is below 70 g / l. / p

    Important! If breastfeeding is preserved, the child must necessarily be given on demand maternal milk, rich in easily digestible iron.

    The effectiveness of therapy in of infants

    Therapy for anemia in infants should be accompanied by a sparing regimen:

    • Frequent walks in the fresh air.

    • Temporary refusal to attend preschool rooms

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      Restriction of physical activity

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      Correction of diet, early introduction of complementary foods for 2-4 weeks).

    After correction of these factors begin treatment of medicines. After 1-2 weeks of complex treatment, with full compliance with all conditions, the level of hemoglobin increases, the growth of reticulocytes. Until normal, hemoglobin can be raised within 3-5 weeks, and even after this treatment should last at least 3 months.

    The reason for the lack of positive dynamics after 3-4 weeks of treatment:

    • Incorrectly calculated dosage of iron-containing drug

    • Neoplasms and inflammation in anamnesis

    • Infection with parasites

    • Mistakenly diagnosed

    • Lack of vitamin B 12.

    After analysis of the reasons, the pediatrician conducts correction of the disease therapy.

    N Hemoglobin School of Dr. Komarovsky:

    Prevention of anemia in infants

    To prevent neonates and infants from developing anemia, a set of preventive measures has been developed in pediatrics:

    • Pregnant woman should eat right, observe the regime of the day, introduce foods rich in iron, take vitamins.

    • Premature babies and toddlers from the group risk should take iron-containing drugs.

    • It is important that the nutrition of the nursing mother is balanced.

    • ration needs timely introduction of necessary products, complementary feeding on demand.

    • It’s important to visit a pediatrician on time , regularly take blood tests for hemoglobin.

    Anemia is often diagnosed in infants. When such a diagnosis is made or if symptoms of pathology are detected independently, the parents of the baby should seek medical help in a timely manner. Timely diagnosis and treatment will help cure anemia without consequences for the child.

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