Hypochromic anemia

0
3

Hypochromic anemia



Hypochromic anemia or, as it is also called, hypochromia is a disease characterized by a decrease in hemoglobin level in the blood. Discover this pathology can be due to a simple study – a clinical blood test.

Hypochromic anemia – what is it

  • Causes of hypochromic anemia
  • Symptoms of hypochromic anemia
  • Varieties
  • Diagnosis of hypochromic anemia
  • How to treat
  • Prognosis and complications of hypochromic anemia
  • Prevention of the disease
  • Hypochromic anemia – what is it?

    Hypochromic anemia is not one disease. Under this term several varieties of anemia are combined at once. However, each of them is characterized by a decrease in the hemoglobin level in the blood. Hemoglobin is a protein that contains iron. Hemoglobin is transported by erythrocytes and is responsible for gas metabolism in the body. If the level of hemoglobin in the blood drops, it leads to the development of hypoxia of organs and tissues. As a result, they are not able to function properly, which seriously affects human health.

    If you turn to the Greek language, you can find out that anemia is translated as anemia. This concept perfectly reflects the essence of this violation. Anemia can accompany a variety of diseases, which in one way or another are related to the hematopoiesis system.

    In addition to the fact that hyperhromia reduces the level of hemoglobin in the blood, the number of erythrocytes falls in it. People with anemia are more exposed to attacks of various viruses and bacteria. It has been established that patients with anemia are twice as likely to seek medical advice about intestinal and respiratory-viral infections.

    Hyperchromic anemia is characterized by a decrease in the color index of the blood. Erythrocytes change their normal form of a biconcave disc to an annular shape. In the middle of such red blood cells appears a light circle, which is bordered by a dark ring.

    Anemia is a common violation not only among adults, but also among children. Immediately after birth, the child has a certain supply of iron, which he received from his mother. If these stocks are not replenished, then the baby will develop anemia.

    The causes of hypochromic anemia

    Depending on the type of anemia, the reasons leading to its development will differ.

    These include:

    • Bleeding, accompanied by blood loss in large volumes: with prolonged and profuse menstruation, during surgery or against the background of the resulting injury.

    • Errors in nutrition with insufficient intake of vitamins and minerals in the body with food. Often, vegetarians and people who adhere to strict diets consult vegetarians for anemia.

    • li

      Hidden internal bleeding that may be present permanently, or renew from time to time. Such blood loss a person can not notice. Their sources are often diseased gums, inflamed hemorrhoids, affected intestinal or stomach walls, uterus and ovaries.

    • Infectious diseases having a chronic course. They include tuberculosis and hepatitis. Iron in the body is redistributed and poorly absorbed. In people in old age, anemia is often caused by kidney and liver diseases.

    • Poisoning of the body with various poisons and chemicals.

    • . During the fetal gestation, the woman’s body needs iron more than in the usual periods of her life. Therefore, pregnancy is always associated with a risk of anemia.

      / li

    • Parasitic infestations, in particular, infection with worms, can lead to the development of anemia.

    • All possible blood diseases can cause anemia.

      / li

    • Autoimmune diseases lead to the death of red blood cells, which also contributes to the development of anemia.

    Separately, it is necessary to note the causes of anemia in toddlers recently born, as well as in children who were born prematurely.

    These include:

    • Rhesus-conflict between mother and child.

    • Infection of the fetus during its intrauterine development by hepatitis, rubella, or other diseases.

    • Serious errors in the menu of the pregnant woman.

    • Injuries received during delivery.

    If feeding a child is wrong, not following the pediatrician’s recommendation, this will inevitably lead to the development of anemia. Often a similar situation is observed in children who feed on artificial mixtures.

    Adolescents are also at risk for developing anemia. Promotes this hormonal restructuring and periods of active growth of the body. Symptoms of hypochromic anemia

    Symptoms of hypochromic anemia of mild severity can really be confused with chronic fatigue, with nervous overstrain or physical overwork. However, the severity of their manifestation directly depends on the stage of anemia in hemoglobin. The less it is in the blood, the more noticeable will be the signs of anemia.

    The first symptoms of anemia are:

    • Deterioration of well-being, which is manifested in mild discomfort.

    • Fast fatigue.

    • Weakening the concentration of attention.

    • A constant sense of physical fatigue.

    • Increased drowsiness.

    Depending on the severity of anemia in a person, the symptoms will differ. You can find out about this from the table.

    Anemia severity

    Symptoms of anemia

    First (light) degree of severity

    Often, there are no symptoms of the disorder, a person does not know about their pathology . There may be minor weakness and slight malaise.

    Second (middle) degree

    • The patient is dizzy.

    • The patient may notice a shortness of breath that he did not have before.

    • Skin and mucous membranes acquire unnatural pallor.

    • / li

    • The heart begins to beat more often.

    The third (severe) degree

    • Periodically, there is a feeling of numbness in the hands and legs.

    • The nails become brittle.

    • Hair begins to fall out.

    • If the anemia is not treated, a fatal outcome is possible.

      Symptoms of anemia in childhood

      The child’s symptoms of anemia may not be manifested at all. Often, this disorder is diagnosed only after blood donation for analysis. In order not to miss the onset of anemia, adults should closely monitor the health of the child.

      Such displays as:

      • The child looks very pale compared to his peers.

      • The kid does not sleep well. He has no appetite.

      • The child is apathetic and lethargic.

      • The child is often sick.

      • Small cracks can appear in the corners of the mouth.

      • The physical and mental development of the child is delayed. If you do not treat anemia, then it becomes a cause of serious health problems, and in severe cases can even be lethal. Hypochromic iron deficiency anemia can be of several types, among which:

        • Microcytic iron deficiency anemia.

          varieties. It is this type of anemia that is most common. A disorder develops against the background of bleeding, with insufficient intake of iron from outside (with food), or on the condition that the organism is not able to adequately absorb this trace element. Also this type of anemia is often diagnosed in nursing mothers and in pregnant women. The risk group includes children and women of childbearing age.

        • Siderohasrtic, or as it is called, iron-deficiency anemia. This type of disorder is characterized by a normal level of iron in the blood, but it can not be absorbed, which leads to a decrease in the number of hemoglobin molecules in the erythrocytes. Such anemia is more susceptible to elderly people, alcoholics, as well as patients who have been poisoned by poisonous chemicals or drugs. Iron diffusive anemia develops when the level of iron in the blood rises against the background of the destruction of red blood cells. This condition often accompanies tuberculosis, as well as diseases accompanied by purulent processes.

        • Anemia of mixed type. Such anemia develops against the backdrop of a lack of vitamin B12 and iron in the body. A person suffering from such a disorder often becomes tired, his body’s natural defense deteriorates, swelling in the hands is observed. Many people who first encountered the diagnosis of “hypochromic anemia”, the question arises: what is it: hereditary or acquired disease? In fact, pathology can be inherited and developed throughout life. The congenital form of anemia manifests in the presence of other blood diseases, and the acquired form is a consequence of surgical interventions, infection and intoxications.

          World Organization health results in awesome statistics. According to their information, every 3 women and every 4 men on the planet suffer from anemia. Moreover, the disorder takes place in chronic form. The reason for this are hidden diseases, inaccuracies in the diet, which contributes to the lack of iron for the normal production of hemoglobin. In this case, people do not turn to the doctors for help. They believe that their increased fatigue and poor state of health is directly related to frequent stress and physical fatigue.

          Diagnosis of hypochromic anemia

          To diagnose a doctor, he examines the patient and listens to his complaints. On a mandatory basis, the doctor specifies whether the nearest blood relatives suffered from anemia. The next stage of diagnosis is the conduct of laboratory studies. Be sure to donate blood for analysis to calculate the level of red blood cells and hemoglobin in it.

          Age and sex

          Normal hemoglobin level in g / l

          Deviations from the norm in g / l

          Male gender / p

          130-160 ​​/ p

          Less than 130

          Female gender

          120-150

          Less than 120

          Pregnant women

          110-150

          Under 10 / p

          Children under five years old

          Newborn

          145

          Less than 145

          1-14 days

          130

          Less than 130

          15-28 days / p

          one erythrocyte should be 0.85-1.15 hemoglobin. Hypochromic anemia is characterized by a decrease in this index less than 0.85.

          In order to clarify the diagnosis, you need to go through a number of additional diagnostic procedures that also allow you to find out the cause of anemia:

          • Fecal donation to detect hidden blood in it.

          • Passage of FGDs for examination of the mucous membrane of the stomach and duodenum.

          • Colonoscopy involves an examination of the intestine.

          • Delivery of urine for analysis.

          • Ultrasound examination of the kidneys.

          • X-ray examination of the lungs.

          • All women must undergo gynecology.

          • A puncture of the bone marrow is performed.

          • A blood test is done to determine the level of serum iron. How to treat? / h2

            Treatment of hypochromic anemia is based on the causes of its causes. To eliminate the clinic of anemia use iron and vitamin B12. It should be taken into account that vitamins are not retained in the body and are quickly excreted by the kidneys, so it will not be possible to achieve a lightning effect.

            Basic principles of therapy:

            • Preparations – iron sources are prescribed for a period of 1 to 1.5 months. This allows you to increase the level of hemoglobin in the blood. Such medicines are: Ferrum Lek, Gemofer, Fenyuls. If the patient is shown preparations for parenteral administration, the treatment should be performed in a hospital setting, since injections involve a high risk of developing an allergic reaction.

            • Cyanocobalamin is prescribed when the patient is diagnosed with vitamin B12 deficiency. The duration of the therapeutic course can be from 30 days to 2 months.

            • If you find a deficiency of folic acid, you will need to take it orally. The duration of therapy is a month. Depending on the individual indications, the doctor can prescribe to the patient preparations of different forms of release: in tablets, in capsules, in solution, in syrup, etc. Injection administration of drugs is shown only in If a person has an acute disease of the digestive system, or his condition is extremely difficult. In this case, the patient must be hospitalized.

              Diet

              Treatment of anemia involves dietary intake.

              Basic rules that need to be fulfilled:

              • Every day a person should receive about 130-150 grams of animal protein. And the emphasis should be on beef and veal. Protein is the base for the synthesis of hemoglobin and red blood cells.

              • Fat food on the menu should be limited, as it has a negative effect on the process of hematopoiesis.

              • To increase the patient’s appetite, a variety of dishes should be introduced into his diet. It can be fish, meat, mushrooms.

              • In the diet should be present products that are the source of B vitamins – eggs, cottage cheese, yeast, fish. Every day you need to eat at least 100 g of liver. Products that must be on the menu:

                • Liver, meat and fish with a low percentage of fat. Particularly useful is beef, which is a source of heme iron and vitamins.

                • Cottage cheese.

                • Mushrooms.

                • Eggs.

                • Bread.

                • Brewer’s yeast.

                • Pomegranate juice. It can also be diluted in equal proportions with beet juice.

                • Peas, lentils and kidney beans.

                • As a source of vitamin C, various berries are eaten.

                There are also foods that do not allow the iron to be absorbed in the body. They include: cereals (millet and oatmeal), tea, greens, whole milk, coffee, fatty foods. They should be excluded from the menu.

                Approximate menu for 1 day for a person with hypochromic anemia:

                • First meal: boiled soft boiled egg, millet porridge with apple, pomegranate juice.

                • Snack: cottage cheese and broth of dogrose. Lunch: vegetable soup, potato zrazy and boiled vegetables, fried liver, berry salad and compote.

                • .

                • Snack: a drink based on yeast, baked beet.

                • Dinner: beef ribs in stewed form, salad with green peas, beans and vegetable oil, rowan mors. Recipes for cooking:

                  • For making porridge from millet, you need 0.25 kg of flakes and 0.5 l of apple juice . Flakes pour juice and leave to insist on the night. In the morning, boil the porridge in a saucepan for 10 minutes.

                  • To prepare the baked beet, you need to wash it, grease it with vegetable oil, sprinkle with salt and bake in the oven. The baking time is 45 minutes at a temperature of 175 degrees.

                  • A drink with yeast. In 10 ml water dissolve 10 g of live yeast and leave for an hour. After this time, you can drink the drink. Salad with berries: mix raspberries, strawberries and blackberries, add the cut banana and apple to them, pour lemon juice and a teaspoon of honey.

                  • Rowberry Morse. Berries in the amount of 100 g grind, add to them the flowers of mountain ash and mint (10 g). For 2 tablespoons of the mixture take 0.2 liters of boiling water, fill it with mountain ash, let them brew. Prognosis and Complications of Hypochromic Anemia

                    If treatment was started on time, it is often possible to completely get rid of anemia.

                    When therapy is not available, it threatens with the following complications:

                    • Immune forces weaken.

                    • Children begin to lag behind in mental and physical development.

                    • The heart works in a strengthened mode, which can lead to the development of cardiomyopathy and heart failure.

                    • The liver grows in size.

                    1. Anemia becomes chronic.

                    2. The nervous system suffers. Prevention of the disease

                      To prevent the development of anemia, you need to eat right, adhering to a balanced menu.

                    3. / To do this, your diet should include liver and kidney beef, eggs quails and chickens, fresh vegetables and fruits.

                      Since women are at risk for developing anemia, they should more often than men give blood for clinical analysis, which will allow to identify the disease in time. If a person, regardless of his sex and age, has found signs of anemia, then he should go to the doctor and begin treatment. Otherwise, serious health problems will not be avoided.

                      The author of the article: Maxim Evgenievich Shutov, hematologist, specially for the site ayzdorov.ru

    LEAVE A REPLY

    Please enter your comment!
    Please enter your name here