Light, moderate and severe degree of anemia


Light, moderate and severe degree of anemia

Anemia of severe 3 develops against the background of a marked drop in hemoglobin in the blood.

This causes the development of severe symptoms, which is manifested by the following pathological changes:

  • Muscular weakness increases, muscle atrophy develops, which is caused by a shortage of myoglobin and tissue respiration enzymes.

  • Dystrophic changes in the skin and its appendages continue to progress.

  • Nails acquire a characteristic spoon-like concavity. This symptom is called coilonichia.

  • Oral mucous membranes and tongue are affected. Patients diagnosed with glossitis, periodontal disease and caries. Characteristic for severe anemia is the symptom of “lacquered tongue” and the atrophy of papillae located on it.

  • In severe anemia, atrophic changes in the mucous membrane of the digestive system develop. The oesophageal mucosa becomes very dry, which leads to difficulties with ingestion of food. Also, patients are diagnosed with atrophic enteritis and gastritis.

  • There is often a bedwetting, which occurs against a background of weakening of the sphincters of the bladder.

  • The temperature of the patient can rise to subfebrile markers and remain at this level for a long time.

  • Wounds and skin injuries heal over a long period of time.

Treatment Patient with a 3 degree of anemia hospitalized. In a hospital he should receive complex therapy. Only diet and iron preparations in this case will not be enough. Therapy is supplemented with corticosteroids, anabolic steroids, androgens, cytostatics. Often patients with a 3 degree of anemia are given blood transfusion, intravenous administration of medicines. In emergency situations, the patient is sent to a bone marrow transplant operation. Sometimes a removal of the spleen is required.

Treatment of anemia of grade 3 without medical supervision is impossible. Often, the development of this severe pathology is caused by blood and bone marrow tumors. Before starting therapy, the doctor should fully examine the patient. During the treatment, his condition is monitored.

Possible causes of anemia of all degrees

There are many reasons that can lead to the development of anemia. First of all, this concerns the deficiency of minerals and vitamins, although it is also not necessary to exclude various diseases.

Iron deficiency anemia develops against the backdrop of a chronic lack of this element. It takes part in many metabolic processes, and is also necessary for the synthesis of hemoglobin. Iron from the body has the property of being excreted. In order not to develop its deficit, an adult should get at least 20 mg of this microelement with foodstuffs per day. Otherwise, the probability of anemia increases.

The impetus to its manifestation can be:

  • Errors in nutrition. Often a similar situation occurs in vegetarians, or in people with low incomes, who are unable to provide themselves with a full menu. Diseases of the digestive system (chronic enteritis, enteropathy, resection of the intestine and stomach, etc.).

  • . This entails problems with digestion of iron. Chronic diseases: erosive esophagitis, ulcers and erosions of the stomach and duodenum, hernia diaphragmatic, varicose veins of the esophagus, gastric or intestinal cancer, hemorrhoids, pulmonary tuberculosis, lung cancer .

  • Pregnancy and the period of breastfeeding, when a woman’s body consumes significant amounts of iron.

  • An intensive training in sports can provoke a shortage of iron, which is due to the accelerated growth of muscle mass.

  • Period of puberty. At this time, the body is intensively growing, so the iron that comes with food, it may not be enough.

  • Internal bleeding. Most often, iron deficiency anemia is caused by chronic blood loss, uninvolved, but prolonged. The patients themselves can not notice them. For example, uterine bleeding in women during menstruation. In men, iron deficiency anemia develops more often with chronic bleeding from the digestive tract.

B12-deficit. This is the anemia that occurs against the background of a lack of vitamin B12 in the body.

The following factors can lead to the development of B12-deficient anemia:

  • Lack of vitamin B12 in the menu.

  • Parasitic infestations, intestinal infections.

  • Diseases of the hepatobiliary system, for example, cirrhosis liver.

  • Increased consumption of vitamin B12 by the body.

There is also folic deficiency anemia that develops when folate is not consumed enough. The norm of this substance for an adult is 200-400 μg per day. The great importance of folic acid for the development of the fetus, as well as for the normal course of pregnancy. Leading to folic deficiency anemia will be the same causes that affect the development of iron deficiency anemia.

Aplastic is another kind of anemia.

The reasons for its appearance are:

  • Hereditary diseases.

  • Intoxication of the body with chemical compounds.

  • Systemic diseases.

  • Impact on the body of radiation: ionizing and X-ray radiation. Infectious diseases: influenza, cytomegalovirus, herpes, parotitis, HIV, etc.

  • Taking some medications: antibiotics, sulfonamides, drugs from the NSAID group, drugs to reduce blood pressure.

Hemolytic. This is anemia, which is characterized by the destruction of red blood cells.

Becoming triggers leading to the development of hemolytic anemia can:

  • Intoxication of the body with toxic compounds.

  • Obtained injuries.

  • Severe infectious diseases.

  • Genetic anomalies.

  • Treatment with some medicines.

A separate type of anemia is hemolytic anemia. It develops against a background of blood loss (acute or chronic).

The causes leading to the development of the disorder:

  • Uterine bleeding.

  • Injury or other damage accompanied by bleeding.

  • Ectopic pregnancy with rupture of the uterine appendage.

  • Bleeding ulcer of the stomach and duodenum.

  • Cancerous tumors of malignant nature.

  • Myoma of the uterus, accompanied by blood loss.

However, the most common type of anemia is iron deficiency. It often occurs in pregnant women against a background of toxicosis and profuse vomiting. In the high-risk group, there are women with 2 fetuses or more. Such diseases in a pregnant woman, like pyelonephritis and hepatitis, can also lead to the development of anemia.

Treatment methods

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Consequences of untreated anemia

The consequences of untreated anemia can be very diverse, ranging from mild, subtle hypoxia of organs and tissues to fatal outcomes. In many ways, this depends on what caused the drop in hemoglobin in the blood, and also on the severity of the disease.

  1. In case of anemia of the first degree, the following health problems are possible:

    • Decrease in the level of arterial pressure.

    • Increased stress on the heart and blood vessels.

    • The appearance of nasal bleeding, which is more often observed in childhood.

    • Immunity falls, which can be expressed in the increased frequency of ARVI episodes in adults and children.

    • Worsening of mental abilities.

    • For the fetus, maternal anemia is associated with a risk of intrauterine growth retardation. A child can be born before the due date.

    • A woman who suffers from mild anemia may experience a weakening of labor. During pregnancy, it can be pursued by toxicosis. Also increases the likelihood of bleeding. Untreated anemia of moderate severity can lead to the development of the following complications:

      • Myocardial dystrophy. Symptomatically this manifests itself in shortness of breath, tachycardia, arrhythmia, widening of the heart to the left, deafness of the heart tones, systolic noises. The long and severe anemia can lead to severe circulatory insufficiency and heart failure.

      • Hypoxia of the brain leads to depression. The patient’s quality of life is significantly reduced, he does not get enough sleep at night, and feels fatigue during the day.

    • The third degree of anemia is a formidable disorder in the body that can lead to severe consequences:

      • Cardiogenic shock.

      • Acute renal failure.

      • Bleeding that is difficult to stop.

      • Heart failure with infarction.

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With the third degree of anemia, the likelihood of a lethal outcome increases. All organs suffer from hypoxia, their performance is disrupted. In addition, the weakened immune system becomes unable to withstand infections. They all have a long and protracted course. Therefore, assistance to the patient must be provided urgently.

Severe anemia in pregnant women threatens with premature birth, gestosis, placental abruption, bleeding and other complications during labor.

The most common anemia is well treated, but you need to seek medical help in a timely manner. If this is not done, then the violation will progress. In childhood, anemia is dangerous due to a delay in mental and physical development.

In order to timely detect the existing problem, you should regularly give blood to determine the level of hemoglobin, do not abandon the dispensary observation. If a person is at risk for developing anemia, the doctor can prescribe a prophylactic intake of iron preparations for him.


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