Folic deficiency anemia

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Folic deficiency anemia

Symptoms of folic deficiency anemia are as follows:

  • Pale skin that can give off yellow.

  • Heart rate increase.

  • Decrease in blood pressure.

  • Periodically occurring dizziness.

  • Disturbances in the digestive system are poorly expressed. From time to time, a dilution of the stool may occur.

  • The spleen slightly increases in size.

  • It is impossible to exclude the development of atrophic gastritis.

  • Symptoms of inflammation of the tongue are possible.

  • In severe cases, anorexia develops.

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  • Myocardial dystrophy develops in anemia, as a secondary lesion of the heart. If the patient suffers from schizophrenia, psychosis or epilepsy, then folic deficiency anemia will contribute to aggravation of the course of the underlying pathology.

    Vitamin B9 deficiency is equally dangerous for women who bear fruit. First of all, under the impact is the child himself, who can develop a defect of the neural tube. In the future this will lead to anencephaly, meningocele or hydrocephalus. Also, babies, who do not receive folic acid during intrauterine growth, may be born with heart defects, with “wolf mouth” or “hare lip”.

    Among the dangers that threaten women with folic deficiency anemia are premature birth, bleeding, miscarriages.

    After delivery, young mothers are prone to depression, and their children lag behind in physical and mental development from their peers. In addition, children are less well functioning immunity, the intestinal capacity to work.

    Diagnosis of folate-deficient anemia

    Studies that need to be passed to a patient with suspected folate-deficiency anemia:

    • A general blood test. Folate deficiency is indicated by: hyperchromia, macrocytosis, leukopenia, thrombocytopenia, low level of reticulocytes.

    • Determination of the level of folic acid in the serum part of the blood and in erythrocytes. In serum, the normal level of folic acid should be maintained at 6-20 ng / ml, and in erythrocytes in the range of 100-450 ng / l. The puncture of the bone marrow will allow to detect hyperplasia of the red shoot, and the hematopoiesis will pass through the megaloblastic type.

    • A sample with histidine. Folic deficiency anemia will be indicated by increased release of formiglutamic acid with urine.

    • ECG. In the results of the electroencephalogram, there will be a violation of repolarization of the left ventricular myocardium.

    • US internal organs will detect the increase in spleen in size. When conducting differential diagnosis, it is necessary to distinguish between folic deficiency anemia with other types of anemia, with acute erythromyelosis and myelodysplastic syndrome.

      How to treat? / h2

      After the diagnosis is established, the patient is prescribed treatment. It is necessary to direct efforts to eliminate the factors that led to the development of anemia.

      First you need to adjust the diet of the patient. His menu includes foods that are rich in vitamin B9. In parallel, the patient should take folic acid inside. The dose of the drug is 1-5 mg per day. The therapy should last for 1-1.5 months. Intramuscular administration of folic acid is possible if its deficiency is caused by a violation of absorption at the level of the intestine. Such patients should be registered with a hematologist and receive a vitamin throughout life.

      Prevention of folate deficiency anemia

      People who are at risk for the development of folic acid deficiency anemia require preventive medication. This applies to pregnant women, patients with thalassemia and hemolytic anemia.

      All pregnant women without exception need to take folic acid immediately after they find out about their situation. Ideally, future mothers should follow a course of drinking folic acid during pregnancy planning. For this purpose, prescribe the drug at a dosage of 0.4 mg per day. Folic acid is shown during breastfeeding. If you follow these recommendations, the probability of the birth of a child with disabilities in the central nervous system is reduced by 3.5 times.

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