Hyperopia in children – causes and treatment
First of all, do not panic and carefully question the doctor about the diagnosis and its probable consequences. While the child is small, his body is actively developing, along with other parts of the body, eyeballs grow, so that up to 12-13 years there is still a chance for an independent correction of the low degree of hypermetropia.
Important: farsightedness in children within +3 diopters does not require wearing glasses, but it is extremely important to monitor the dynamics of changes in the state of the visual apparatus – if the hypermetropia begins to increase with age, instead of falling to normal, treatment.
Diagnosis of children’s farsightedness
In order to identify visual impairment in small patients, doctors use three main techniques:
Visometry . This simple test is familiar to every person: there is a poster on the wall with letters of different sizes, arranged in rows – from the largest at the top, to the tiniest below. The doctor puts the child at a strictly certain distance from this poster, asks to alternately cover one hand with the palm of his hand, and the second try to consider and name the letter to which the pointer is directed. Given the initial suspicion of hypermetropia, this study is carried out using trial “plus” lenses. The lack of methodology is obvious – in order to pass the visometry, the child must at least know the letters and be able to speak. Consequently, for babies it does not fit.
Skiascopy (shadow test). The procedure is as follows: the doctor sits opposite the child at a distance of exactly 1 meter, takes a special device – a skiascope, which is a flat mirror, sends a beam of light into the eye, it reflects from the retina and is perceived by the eye of the doctor. To assess refraction, the mirror of the skiascope needs to be rotated in a horizontal and vertical plane, with a shadow appearing on the retina. If it arises from the side where the mirror is displaced, the child has a long sight. Having discovered this, the oculist gives the young patient a skin-line ruler with trial lenses, which applies them in turn to the eyes until the shadow disappears:
That lens, which will achieve the desired effect, and is suitable for the subject baby, and its values in diopters characterize the degree of hypermetropia. Obtain accurate data only after instillation of atropine sulfate into the eye. This is necessary to create an artificial temporary paralysis of the ciliary muscles and dilate the pupil. Sciascopy is ideal for diagnosing visual impairment in young children, because no feedback from the patient is required during the procedure.
Refractometry. This research is carried out using the device of the same name – a refractometer, which is a much more complicated and expensive device, in comparison with a skiascope, therefore, is not found in any polyclinic. Nevertheless, the essence of the two methods is very similar. During refractometry, the patient leans against the device and looks into special lenses through which light is directed into his eyes. On the reverse side, the doctor sees what pattern the refracted rays form on the patient’s retina. Here’s what the results might look like:
After registering a refraction violation, the doctor begins to rotate the handle of the device, thereby changing the refractive power of the lens until the light strips fall into place. When this happens, the optical scale of the device will indicate the degree of hyperopia in the patient in diopters. This procedure is characterized by the highest accuracy of measurements and is also carried out after instillation of atropine sulfate into the eyes. Refractometry is the best way to diagnose farsightedness in children, especially very young ones.
Is it possible to cure hyperopia in children?
Such a question arises in parents is not accidental, because ophthalmologists in most cases suggest that they rely on nature and hope that hypermetropia will pass very low itself. This recommendation is fully justified, but only if we do not let the situation run its course. It is necessary to regularly check the visual acuity of your child in order to see the dynamics and make corrections in the treatment strategy on time.
The average and high degree of hyperopia, especially in children 1-3 years of age, necessarily requires therapeutic measures, because at this age complications develop at lightning speed. If a child has a strabismus or worse – amblyopia, it will take a lot of time and effort to restore visual functions, and not the fact that it will be possible to do it. Moreover, it is not easy to accurately perform all medical recommendations: the doctor has prescribed glasses for farsightedness or a bandage against strabismus – this is where the main Problems. The child is capricious, refuses to wear a hateful object, and even intentionally spoils it, so as not to be mocked at the children’s collective. It’s hard to cope with such a situation, but it’s absolutely necessary.
Important: You can correct farsightedness in a child, but only if you do not ignore the dynamics of the disease and follow the treatment tactic developed by a qualified ophthalmologist.
Do you need glasses for farsightedness?
If we are talking about physiological hypermetropia, the norms of which for different ages were specified above, no optical correction to the child is required – most likely, by the time of admission to the first grade schools Al son or daughter will have one hundred percent vision. Regular examinations at the oculist once every six months are required for those children who have the maximum permissible degree of hyperopia (+3 Dpt) and / or an unfavorable heredity for this disease.
With an average and severe hypermetropia, the child will be given glasses and give advice regarding the mode of wearing them – this can be a continuous process or use only in those periods when close vision is involved (training, creativity) – everything depends on the severity of the pathology. The good news for troubled parents is the fact that most children who wear glasses at preschool age completely restore their vision by the age of 7-8 and do not need them.
Optics for young patients are carried out according to the same rules , as for adults. The only important difference is the need to regularly check the visual acuity, which can quickly change. If this happens, you need to immediately write out other, more suitable glasses. Separately, we should mention such a serious obstacle to the successful treatment of hyperopia in children, as unwillingness or even a categorical refusal to wear glasses.
Let’s give some tips to parents:
If it’s a kid who goes to the kindergarten, try to infect him with his own example, because parents are the main authority for children of this age. Buy pacifiers for the whole family and demonstratively wear them, saying how cool it is. Praise your child by noting that he has a very important and intelligent look in glasses.
Point or contact correction
Hardware and physiotherapy procedures.
Special gymnastics for the eyes
Use of medicines, including drops, vitamins and supplements
For each eye, its own lens is . With this vision impairment, a situation is very common where one eye sees better and another sees worse. Moreover, the difference in refraction can reach impressive values. The more it is, the higher the risk of developing such a formidable complication as amblyopia.
The lens should maximally “unload” the diseased eye . We are talking about accommodation. If you choose the first lens for the glasses, in which the child clearly sees the letters in the tenth row of the visometric table, it will be wrong, as he sees them, maximally straining the ciliary muscle and stretching the lens. Therefore, an ophthalmologist uses this technique: increases the refractive power of the lens until the tenth rad does not begin to look vague. The lens that preceded this will be the one we are looking for.
We need to check the binocular vision . Sometimes it happens that the lenses for each eye are matched perfectly, but when combined, the diplopia effect appears (picture doubling). Therefore, before writing a prescription for finished glasses, you need to make sure that the child correctly and accurately sees with the selected lenses.
Lens tolerance and comfort level . Let the young patient sit for a while in them, try to read something or look at a close distance. If this does not cause any negative symptoms (burning, rubbing, lacrimation, tension, pain in the eyes), we can conclude that the glasses are suitable for the baby.
measure the distance between the pupils of . This is a segment that connects the outer edge of the cornea of one eye with the inner edge of the cornea of another. The fact is that the frame can have different parameters, therefore, the lenses in the finished glasses can move apart or approach. If they are not installed correctly, the child will not be able to see well in such a product.
A light massage of the eyeballs with closed eyelids is performed with the fingertips of the parent, with careful circular motions clockwise and then counterclockwise, for five seconds with a few repetitions.
“Snake”. Lay the child horizontally on your back, take a bright toy, raise it to a height of about one meter above the face of the baby, draw his attention, make sure that he fixes a look at the object. Then slowly bring the toy closer to your eyes, making looping movements, so that the child watches it. Repeat 2-5 times.
rolling the ball. Sit with the baby on the floor opposite each other at a distance of about one meter, spreading your legs to the sides. Take a small bright ball, and roll it towards the child, asking not to take your eyes off the toy, otherwise according to the rules of the game it will be “lost”. Let the kid catch the ball and send it back to you, and so on several times.
“Bloomers”. This simple relaxing eye exercise is suitable for the smallest children. Scrape a funny grimace, and when the kid turns his attention to you, turn your eyes shut and open your eyes wide – the son or daughter will certainly repeat for you, simultaneously improving the eye blood circulation and training the visual muscles.
“Reading”. Such an exercise can be offered to a child mastering the first books. This should be an edition with a large font. First, determine the maximum distance from which the baby can see the letters well. Ask him to read a few lines. Then turn the page and bring the book up to 10 cm. Let the child read a couple of lines again. Repeat these steps until the book is 15-20 cm from the baby’s face.
Dried fruits (figs, dried apricots, prunes, raisins).
Nuts (walnuts, mi almonds, orange, hazelnuts, cashews).
Fresh fruits and berries (bananas, apricots, peaches, oranges, blueberries). Vegetables and greens (carrots, cabbage, tomatoes, celery, parsley).
Motivate older children to wear glasses is much more difficult, but it’s also possible: consider this subject as stylish accessory. Allow the child to choose the shape of the lenses and the frame, so that the glasses are to the face, they sit comfortably and really give intelligence. Mention world stars with glasses, especially if you know that a certain actor likes a son or daughter. / H
Treatment of farsightedness in children
Therapy this impaired vision at the age of 16 is carried out exclusively by conservative methods:
Physiotherapy and hardware treatment d Alzonism in children is represented by a variety of effective techniques: laser and electrostimulation, vacuum massage, color pulse, ultrasound and magnetic impact on the organs of vision. The courses of such procedures are recommended to be held regularly and combined with the taking of maintenance drugs.
Important: traditional microsurgery and laser correction of hyperopia to children under 16 years old is not indicated, since their eyes are still growing, and under the influence of this natural process, undesirable changes may occur after the operation, leading to new refractive disorders.
On the problems with vision in children, the famous Russian pediatrician Evgeny Komarovsky has repeatedly spoken. His stories are distinguished by the availability of the presentation and an abundance of useful information, so if you want to learn something new and interesting about the treatment and prevention of infant hyperopia, check out the video with Dr. Komarovsky:
Ophthalmic correction of vision
Successful selection of optics for hypermetropia in a child depends on the following rules:
Important: the farsighted glasses should be used as soon as possible – as soon as the doctor recommends optical correction. Do not delay with the acquisition of glasses and carefully monitor their wearing, because the chances of restoring normal vision in the child depend on this.
Gymnastics for the eyes
For hypermetropia in babies it is useful to perform the following simple exercises:
Older children may well perform “adult” gymnastics for the eyes: / p
Sports and outdoor games
For children with a weak degree of farsightedness, active activities are very useful, due to the frequent change of focus of a look at moving objects located at different distances. These are games such as football, volleyball, basketball, hockey. Any kind of sport where a projectile is involved, which needs to be watched, will train the accommodation mechanism and help fight hypermetropia.
With an average degree of farsightedness, too dynamic games, such as football or hockey, can be dangerous for the child, because his visual apparatus will tire faster than the peers. And this is fraught with lacrimation and headaches, not to mention blurred vision and the risk of injury. Such children are recommended swimming, table tennis, badminton.
A high degree of farsightedness makes mobile sports impossible for the child. But this does not mean that physical education should be banned altogether, because of well-being, proper blood circulation and strong muscle tone depends, in including, and the health of the visual apparatus. A child with a pronounced hypermetropia should do morning exercise, and at the same time with it gymnastics exercises for the eyes.
Important: aggressive sports (wrestling, boxing, martial arts) and weightlifting are absolutely contraindicated for children with farsightedness, as well as with any other visual impairment!
On the child’s table with hypermetropia, products rich in vitamins and trace elements useful for vision should be present:
The decision on additional intake of vitamin-mineral complexes or dietary supplements should be taken by a doctor. Such funds may be of questionable quality or simply not suitable for your child. It is not necessary to purchase a widely advertised drug for improving eyesight from the “do not exactly hurt”, because hypervitaminosis and excess of some micro- and macro elements are no less dangerous to health than their deficiency. “/ / / br /
Prophylaxis of hyperopia in children
If the baby is diagnosed with a weak degree of hypermetropia, this is already an occasion to think about prevention. When a child does something, draws or reads, his workplace should be illuminated by an upper chandelier or a table lamp with a power of 60-100 watts. Every 30-60 minutes of such activities you need to distract the baby and arrange a break, it is best if it is a playful game, eye exercises, a small homework or a walk in the fresh air. At least perform eyeball massage or blind man exercises.
Of course, the main “root of evil” lies in the gifts of modern civilization – TV, computer, tablet. It is about these devices that children “kill” the eyes, even if there are no rudiments of visual disturbances. What can I say about the available farsightedness? The most harmful thing a sick kid can do is sit for a long time in front of a TV or a monitor, play games on a tablet or smartphone. The second is even worse, because the image is usually located too close to the face. Of course, this does not mean that you need to throw out all electronic devices out of the house, as soon as the son or daughter was diagnosed as “far-sighted.” It is necessary simply to limit the time of their operation to reasonable limits or to arrange breaks more often. Take care of children, and be healthy!