Causes and symptoms of pancytopenia
What is pancytopenia
Pancytopenia is called a pathological condition in which the composition of all circulating blood decreases elements that form its composition (erythrocytes, leukocytes, platelets and blood platelets). It determines its hypoplasia (decrease in the number of cellular elements of the organ or tissue) or aplasia (violation or termination of regeneration of the formed elements) of the blood cells. Pancytopenia occurs as a result of extremely severe conditions of the body (radiation sickness, life-threatening infections, etc.). In pancytopenia, the hematopoietic, immune and lymphatic systems suffer. Among the organs the pathological process is most affected by bone marrow, lymph nodes, spleen, lymphoid tissues. Often, pancytopenia is combined with dysplasia, hyperplasia, degeneration and necrosis of organs and tissues. The causes of pancytopenia
Among the causes of pancytopenia may be a family illness – Fanconi anemia (a set of congenital anomalies, including bone marrow hypoplasia, idiopathic refractory anemia).
Aplastic anemia is also often accompanied by pancytopenia. These pathologies arise as a side effect of the use of chemotherapy in the treatment of malignant tumors. That is why pancytopenia is one of the most dangerous allergic hemopathies.
Harm can bring ionizing radiation that affects the bone marrow. Malignant blood diseases and tumors also cause pancytopenia (normal bone marrow replaces tumor metastases).
Often the cause of pancytopenia is osteoporosis: the bone tissue is formed in excess, resulting in bone marrow cavities are overgrown. This leads to the appearance of anemia and pancytopenia. There is a group of accumulation (storage) diseases, which are peculiar congenital errors of metabolism. A certain enzyme may be insufficiently active or absent altogether, which leads to changes in the functions of the organ: a metabolic substrate (glucose, glycogen and amino acid derivatives) accumulates in its cells. Due to the storage of glycogen, splenomegaly occurs, which provokes the development of pancytopenia. Splenomegaly can also develop due to liver cirrhosis, portal hypertension, sarcoidosis, malaria, megaloblastic anemia, visceral leishmaniasis, chronic infectious diseases (tuberculosis, etc.), malignant blood diseases, spleen destruction.
Symptoms of pancy cytopenia
Clinical symptoms of pancytopenia manifest along with the symptoms of the disease that caused it. In general, the symptoms of anemia are typical for this pathology: general weakness, pale skin, lethargy. Possible hemorrhagic diathesis, inflammation and bleeding of mucous membranes (thrombocytopenia), fever, reduced immunity, repeating infection (leukopenia), hemoptysis and hematuria. If pancytopenia provokes destruction and necrosis of blood cells, the disease develops sharply. With bone marrow suppression, the course of the disease is slow, the symptoms of pancytopenia do not appear, the production of blood cells is reduced. Treatment of pancytopenia
Treatment of pancytopenia is carried out depending on the clinical situation and the disease that provoked this pathology. Therapy includes the use of antibiotics, blood and plasma transfusions. An important stage is the treatment of infections.
The patient is subject to daily clinical examinations. Particular attention is paid to the measurement of body temperature, palpation of lymph nodes, periodically make a general blood test.
Due to pancytopenia, anemia, thrombocytopenia, mucosal bleeding, the emergence of secondary infections can develop.