Paralysis of the brain appears due to the defeat of the main motor neuron in any part of it. Since the cells and fibers of the bundles of nerve cells are located quite closely, this arrangement causes complete paralysis of all limbs or half of the body. Peripheral paralysis mainly affects only a few muscle groups or individual muscles. The exception is when a small focal spot in the cerebral cortex can be the source of the formation of a separate central paralysis of the face or foot.
From the foregoing it can be seen that the symptoms in central paralysis are different in comparison with the symptoms of peripheral paralysis. There is no inherent manifestation of muscle atrophy, no reaction of transformation, is not seen on the atony of muscles and loss of reflexes. If even there is a scattered atrophy of muscular musculature with central paralysis, then it is always insignificant. It is also a consequence of total muscle inactivity and is explained as a disorder that is accompanied by damage to the surface of the brain (mainly the parietal region).
In certain traumas and hemorrhages, paralysis occurs abruptly, and initially loss of reflexes and hypotonia of the muscles is often possible. Hemorrhages, thromboses of the cerebral hemispheres, which are accompanied by paralysis, also lead to a dangerous and unavoidable absence of spinal reflexes. This is a short-lived process and most often degenerates into a typical picture of central paralysis, which in turn leads to hypertension of the muscles and increased reflexivity. / H
What are the signs of paralysis? The first signs of central paralysis of the brain are elevated tendon reflexes, hypertension of muscles and painful reflexes. There is another name for central paralysis – spastic, called because of hypertension or spasticity of muscles. According to the sensations, the muscles are always dense, tense, and with inert movements there is obvious opposition, which is sometimes difficult to overcome.
This state represents the consequences of lifting the reflex tone and is divided, as a rule, unevenly. The result is typical contractures. The general picture with paralysis of the brain is typically the same: the fingers, the hand and the arm are bent. The leg is unbent in the knee and the pelvic area, the foot is tilted inward. Hyperreflexia is also considered a manifestation of intensive, self-acting work of the spinal cord. Unlike tendon reflexes in central paralysis, the sensitivity of the skin does not increase, but disappears or decreases.
The accompanying movements appear involuntarily in the paralyzed limbs, mainly when the healthy muscles are straining. There are several reasons for syncopeesis, which explain the work of muscles in case of brain paralysis. For example, if you use a healthy hand to shake hands, the paralyzed hand performs concomitant reflex bending. The same flexion is observed when sneezing or coughing.
With the above factors in the paralyzed leg, an involuntary spreading is noticed. If in a lying position the patient takes a healthy leg aside, then the paralyzed leg is also involuntarily withdrawn. Painful reflexes in the face are inherent for central paralysis, they are the result of bilateral damage to the cortical, subcortical or stem divisions. Even with an external examination of the patient, you can detect defects in the work of muscles and motor skills.
In conversation with the patient, paralysis of mimicry and speech disorder can be detected. There is a tremor, convulsive twitching and other unpleasant conditions. As a rule, doctors will certainly check the patient’s pace, which, most likely, will be upset. The facial part of the patient is examined starting from the forehead (wrinkling upwards), connecting the eyelids, moving the eyes, opening the mouth, withdrawing the corners of the mouth outward, extending the tongue.
After determining the boundaries of the head’s turning to the sides, shrugging, raising hands horizontally and vertically, their extension and bending, the work of fingers, hands. After that, torso bends, walking on toes and heels.
Movement control can be disturbed due to the defeat of the cerebellum and loss of coordination of movements (loss of sensation of location and movement). The abnormally developing paralysis of the brain can be the result of encephalitis, hemorrhage, stroke, head trauma, infections transmitted by parasites, and brain inflammation. Also, this ailment can be a consequence of epilepsy. Detection of a specific degree of susceptibility pathology on the body makes it possible to determine the affected part of the spinal cord more specifically.
When forming the lower paralysis, it is necessary to immediately eliminate the compression of the spinal cord. Other reasons spinal cord lesions – sarcoidosis, vascular disease, anterior cerebral artery ischemia, neurosyphilis, upper sagittal sinus thrombosis, tumor, hydrocephalus. The consequence of brain damage is also depressed consciousness, drowsiness, confusion, cognitive interference.