It is commonly believed that paralysis of the extremities can manifest itself in severe spinal cord injury. In medicine, full and partial paralysis of the limbs is distinguished. Complete paralysis occurs when the integrity of the brain located in the canal of the spine is impaired.
In this case, the weakness of the muscles of certain parts of the body is due to a certain degree of damage to the spinal cord. When the integrity of the spinal cord is disturbed at the location of the fourth cervical vertebra or higher, then paralysis of the respiratory system may develop and lead to death.
When paralysis of all limbs, paralysis is called tetraplegia, which manifests itself in the case of damage to the spinal cord at the level of the fourth, fifth and sixth cervical vertebra, although the patient manages to raise and bend his hands. When the back of the brain is affected at the location of the sixth and seventh cervical vertebra, paralysis affects the legs, hands and wrists. In this case, the patient can only flex his arms and move his shoulders.
In the transverse typical lesion of the spinal cord, paraplegia usually occurs at the level of the thoracic and lumbar vertebral parts, when both legs are paralyzed. Paralysis of the legs can develop both above and below the knees. This depends on the specific degree of involvement of the important spinal cord. All cases of spinal cord injury, after which paralysis often develops, are characterized by partial or dangerous complete disruption of the function of all sweat glands and loss of sensitivity of paralyzed sites.
Distinguish between the central and peripheral paralysis of the limbs. The central type of paralysis of the limbs is marked by brain damage, which in turn breaks the limbs or completely paralyzes them. This type of disease can often occur after a stroke. Peripheral paralysis occurs when peripheral motor neurons are affected. It is characterized by areflexia, atony or hypotension, as well as the presence of atrophy.
Paralysis of the extremities can occur with any disturbance of the nervous system. Its occurrence can be caused by many causes, for example, infections, various traumas, lesions of the vascular system, as well as multiple sclerosis. According to statistics, limb paralysis in most cases occurs due to an accident.
The remaining factors leading to paralysis of the limbs are various tumors that can infringe on the spinal cord, congenital disease states, and inflammation of the spinal cord. Often the paralysis of the limbs is caused by infectious diseases. The patient with meningitis, tuberculosis, viral encephalitis and poliomyelitis puts himself at risk of impaired motor functions of the hands and feet.
When a central type of paralysis occurs, motor functions in the entire human body are severely impaired. The aching muscles become strained, but do not completely atrophy. The paralyzed side is characterized by the absence or decrease in abdominal reflexes. When the function of peripheral motor neurons is disrupted, then the individual muscles are affected. In this situation, in the affected area, the reflexes decrease or disappear altogether.
Among the symptoms of paralysis of the limbs, there are significant muscle weakness and spastic paralysis in these muscles, a loss of pain sensitivity, poor blood circulation, and involuntary bowel movement and urinary bladder. / h How to treat paralysis of limbs? / / h3
In modern medicine, there are many different ways to effectively treat this dangerous ailment. For the treatment of central paralysis of the extremities, medications normalizing cerebral circulation (cinnarizine, cavinton), as well as preparations that contain components that help restore the affected brain cells (lipocerebrine, cerebrolysin) are used. In addition, it is necessary to take other medicines that can significantly reduce brain oxygen consumption.
In the treatment of peripheral paralysis, doctors focus on modern physiotherapy. Among the physiotherapeutic methods, electrophoresis is isolated when the galvanic current is applied to the damaged limb. In addition, in the treatment of this type of paralysis, it is mandatory to do massages and therapeutic gymnastics.
Also a good result is given by special mud procedures and baths containing hydrogen sulphide and radon. Therapy of peripheral paralysis of the limbs includes the mandatory intake of B vitamins and aloe extract, as well as vitreous.
An invaluable contribution to the treatment of such patients is also brought by psychological support, which, in combination with therapeutic procedures, allows successful completion of the disease.