Facial paralysis is characterized by severe damage to the facial nerve, caused by a virus or autoimmune reactions. For this disease, a typical sudden onset and significant damage to one side of the face. In rare cases, it is possible to observe the defeat of both sides.
Paralysis of the facial nerve manifests itself from the acute development of violations of the function of facial muscles. The affected side is marked by the absence of wrinkles on the forehead, while the corner of the mouth is markedly lowered. The patient usually does not manage to perform the simplest facial movements: frown, wink or fold his lips with a tube. On the affected side, salivation is significantly increased. For facial paralysis, in almost all cases, pain in the face, a taste disorder, an exacerbation of hearing and dry eyes are characteristic.
This dangerous disease begins in most cases with an acute form, and the improvement begins within two weeks. But, if the patient does not get better even after a month, then irreversible changes in the nerves are possible. The main signal can be keratitis (inflammation of the cornea of the eye) and contraction of paralyzed muscles.
In facial paralysis, the patient can observe a typical asymmetry of the face, which is noticeable at rest and strengthened when trying any facial movements. The affected side is immobilized. The skin on the forehead can not be wrinkled, the patient can not close the eye (the eyeball starts slightly wrapping, exposing the scleral band).
But it is worth noting that during sleep the muscle lifting the upper eyelid relaxes and the eye begins it is better to close. When you try to inflate your cheeks, the air in the patient leaves through the immobilized corner of the mouth, the cheek on the other side of the “sail”.
With facial paralysis, there is a slight smoothing of the nasolabial fold and uncharacteristic omission of the corner of the mouth. When trying to lift the corners of the patient’s mouth with the fingers, the patient results in a marked increase in the angle of the affected part of the face with respect to the healthy one. In addition, such patients can not easily bite their teeth, the affected side remains covered with lips. Therefore, the asymmetry of the mouth can resemble a kind of racquet for playing tennis, which is turned towards the affected part of the face.
It’s very difficult for a sick person to eat food because it can fall over your cheek and you need to get it all the time with your tongue. Often it is possible to observe and biting the mucous cheek on the affected side. Unsteady food together with saliva often flows from the corner of the mouth on the side of paralysis. It’s awkward for a man to talk. When trying to whistle or blow out a candle in a person struck by paralysis of the facial nerve, nothing happens. Tears can also flow outward without getting into the tear duct.
Patients may experience partial, and in some cases abnormal, repair of damaged fibers. Undamaged fibers send new defined axons to those parts of the nerve that are damaged. Such a pathological appearance of signs of restoration of nerve conduction in a significant period of regeneration is able to answer the question of the occurrence of contractions or involuntary muscle contractions in facial mimicry.
This also explains the syndrome of the so-called crocodile tears. Scientists tend to believe that secretory lacrimal fibers are able to germinate into the accessory cells of the nervous tissue of degenerate paralyzed fibers, which from the very beginning nourished the tear gland.
What causes facial paralysis?
The main causes of peripheral paralysis of the facial nerve are always different. The most common factors for the development of this disease can be both hypothermia and the ingress of a serious infection in the human body. As a result, there is a strong spasm of the vessels of the facial peripheral nerve, which later turns into a typical edema and a mismatch of the strict diameters of the facial nerve, as well as its channel.
Facial paralysis is always better to treat under stationary conditions. And the strategy of treatment will completely depend on the factor, stage of the disease and a certain degree of lesion of the facial nerve. If the cause of the disease is a specific infection, then a strict semi-postal regime is needed for two to three days. Here you need to be guided by modern anti-inflammatory therapy, which will be prescribed by an experienced specialist.
At the initial stage of the disease, a special effect is given by a special hormonal treatment, corticosteroids (or prednisolone or its analogs) are recommended. Since there is swelling of the nerve and its infringement in the bone channel, then diuretic drugs are used for treatment. For example, furosemide, diacarb, and triampur.
In addition, in any of the cases, medicines that can significantly improve blood circulation in the nerve. It is nicotinic acid and compliance. In order to prevent significant dryness of the conjunctiva and rapid development of trophic disorders, it is recommended to dig in the eyeball several times a day with albucid, as well as drops with vitamins.
A week after the onset of the disease, the necessary vitamin therapy is performed, medicines that improve neuromuscular transmission. In addition, such facial paralysis treatment necessarily includes physiotherapy and the necessary curative gymnastics.