Causes and Symptoms of Paralysis
What is paralysis
Paralysis is a major change in the body leading to loss and disturbance of motor functions. In medicine, paralysis is characterized by the degree of manifestation, persistence and localization. Allocate complete and partial paralysis, irreversible and transient, common and not spread. When diagnosing paralysis in a place opposite to the place of CNS lesion, it is called crossed or contralateral paralysis.
When a lesion is found on the paralyzed side, it is said of uncrossed or ipsilateral paralysis. By degree and localization, paralysis is divided into tetraplegia, monoplegia, hemiplegia and paraplegia. Hemiplegia refers to the complete paralysis of the face or limbs located on one side of the body. Diplegia refers to bilateral paralysis of one part of the body. Tetraplegia is diagnosed when all four limbs are paralyzed.
Paraplegia refers to the partial or complete paralysis of both legs, which is associated with impairment of the motor functions of the lower torso due to ailment or trauma. Many diseases of the human nervous system can become precursors of paralysis. Paralysis – does not exist separately as a disease and has many causative factors of its causing. Any disturbance in the work of the nervous system can lead to damage to the motor functions. The causes of paralysis
Among the organic causes of paralysis are: traumatic conditions, disseminated encephalomyelitis, infectious diseases (eg, viral encephalitis, various types of tuberculosis, inflammation of the meninges, poliomyelitis), poisoning of the body, metabolic disorder, eating disorder, vascular disease, cancer.
Paralysis can be a consequence of hereditary or congenital diseases of the central nervous system. Of the toxic causes are: a lack of vitamin B1 (beriberi disease), a lack of nicotinic acid (pellagra), alcoholic polyneuritis, intoxication of the body with salts of heavy metals (lead). Children’s cerebral palsy (ICP) and Erb’s paralysis are caused by a specific birth trauma.
A list of diseases whose origin is unknown can become harbingers of a paralysis of various orientations. Paralysis in wounds and fractures occurs when there is a disruption of the motor pathways and centers. There are many cases when paralysis becomes a consequence of a hysterical mentally unhealthy person, then the patient needs psychiatric help.
Symptoms of paralysis
Clinically, some varieties of paralysis, which act as an independent disease. For example, parkinsonism, poliomyelitis, Erba palsy, Bell’s paralysis, bulbar and pseudobulbar paralysis, cerebral palsy, myoplegia, and many congenital and inherited diseases.
Peripheral paralysis of the face is called Bell’s paralysis. It occurs when the facial nerve is affected and is fairly widespread. The causes of Bell’s paralysis are various: hypothermia, polyneuropathy, infectious diseases (diphtheria, epidemic parotitis), cancerous tumors. The main symptoms of the presented disease are severe headaches and migraines.
The disease can be the result of trauma or surgical manipulation of the body. But in many cases the origin of the disease is unknown. When the motor functions of the facial nerve are violated, complete one-sided muscular paralysis of the face occurs. The patient can not close his eyes, it is difficult for him to talk and eat. Bilateral lesion of the facial nerve can be met very rarely. The necrosis of motionless muscles can occur in 2 weeks. The prognosis and the further course of the disease are due to the cause of the disease.
So paralysis of the facial nerve with ear disease or trauma can be irreversible. In many cases, facial nerve palsy succeeds in a few weeks to restore the functions of the facial muscles.
Variety of paralysis Bulbar paralysis can be of two types: acute or progressive. The form of acute bulbar paralysis is poliomyelitis. The disease breaks the work of the medulla oblongata and the bridge, there is paralysis of the tongue and organs of the oral cavity. The onset of the disease is characterized by the following symptoms: headache, dizziness, fever. There is no muscle pain.
Bulbar paralysis is characterized by a lack of a uniform pulse and respiration. The voice becomes nasal and it is sometimes difficult to make out what the patient is saying. The food in the patient hardly holds in the mouth, pours out. It is often possible to note the presence of hemiplegia and monoplegia. The course of the disease is a rapid, fatal outcome comes in a few days. It is possible and recovery with partial paralysis.
The disease with progressive bulbar paralysis is different in duration and occurs in middle-aged men. The origin of the disease is unknown. There is a progressive paralysis of the muscles of the oral cavity organs. Symptoms are the same as in acute bulbar paralysis. There is no cure, so the fatal outcome occurs within 1 to 3 years.
Diagnosis of paralysis should include the following items: a modern examination of the patient neurologist, examination of the body with the help of high-performance computed tomography, full diagnosis of the disease using magnetic resonance imaging, checking the reflexes of the legs (for example, knee reflex), obtaining results with neuronosonography, fluoroscopy.
Razl Investigation of nerves in hemiplegia (paralysis of the face or limbs located on one side of the body) is important in determining the site of the lesion. Such a serious disorder in the motor area of the frontal lobe of the brain occurs along with complete paralysis of the symmetrical side.
One-sided contraction of the facial muscles is a symptom of multiple sclerosis. If the cervical muscles are involved in the pathological process, then the Ler-Mitt symptom may be indicative of this, which is manifested by the sensation of numbness and tingling of the hands and feet in the case of the head tilt.
Sometimes the patient experiences sudden sharp pain when flexing the neck, which spreads over the spine. When determining the location of the primary focus in the brain abscess, the ears, the mastoid processes and the paranasal sinuses of the patient are examined.
In the diagnosis of Bell’s paralysis, a hearing is tested to determine the auditory nerve abnormality, and the vestibular apparatus is monitored by monitoring the vestibular apparatus equilibrium of a sick person, observe lacrimation, take necessary blood tests and make a lumbar puncture.
Diagnosis of infantile cerebral palsy includes monitoring of the child Differential diagnosis is aimed at identifying various congenital and hereditary diseases by scanning and various analyzes. When diagnosing cerebral palsy, a thorough neurological examination is necessary.
The main task in the treatment of paralysis is to eliminate the cause of the disease. In all cases, specifically symptomatic treatment, gymnastics and therapeutic massage, facilitating the restoration of motor functions. For each case, the physician selects individually a program for the treatment of paralysis, including medical therapy.
Therapeutic physical training is the main method of therapy for this dangerous disease. It is very important to lay the correctly affected limb. In the case of central paralysis, the arms and legs of the patient are positioned so that no contractures appear. Gymnastics should combine energetic and passive movements. Passive exercises are carried out with great care, preventing excessive motor activity of the extremities.
With paralysis of the peripheral type, a special massage is done before the therapeutic gymnastics. When movements start to appear, specific active actions are introduced into the treatment. A great benefit is therapeutic gymnastics combined with a bath or a pool.
Special drug therapy is selected individually by a neurologist. Inside prescribe proserine, dibazol, intravenous injection of vitamin B1, mellitin (in case of increased muscle tone). In the treatment of the dangerous paralysis of Bell, salicylates, corticosteroids and, in addition to medicines, electrotherapy are used.
In the case of drug treatment of bulbar paralysis, a course of vascular therapy is carried out using drugs that can improve brain metabolism and also oxygen therapy. The drugs used in the treatment of spastic paralysis: imidazoline, datrolen, gabaleptin benzodiazepines. In addition, spastic paralysis uses Botox treatment, injecting it into the affected muscles, which become relaxed afterwards. The spastic paralysis is characterized by surgical intervention.
In the treatment of paralysis, the long-term presence of a patient in bed can be bad for the disease. Bed rest will cause disturbed blood circulation, dizziness and fainting.
One should remember that in the treatment of paralysis it is necessary to constantly move, and if for the patient it is an impossible task, then you need to help him. The practice of breathing exercises involves all the lungs that work with paralysis not in full.
Prevention of this disease consists mainly in the prevention of those serious diseases that can cause paralysis.