Intestinal paresis or paralytic intestinal obstruction is a serious transient disruption of intestinal peristalsis. This disease is often diagnosed after certain operative manipulations on the intestine, when the water-electrolyte balance is disturbed. Paresis of the intestine is more often manifested on the second or third day after surgery. The patient may develop an intoxication of the body.
Often, with intestinal paresis, a considerable expansion of the stomach can be observed. Paresis can be localized in one place in the gastrointestinal tract, or it can capture all of its parts. There are many factors that have become a progressive basis for the development of this ailment. Among them, many diseases and pathological conditions of the human body. This can be peritonitis, various tumors, hematomas, and inflammation in the intestines.
Intestinal paralytic obstruction can occur due to a dangerous kidney stone disease or a specific peritoneal injury. People who underwent myocardial infarction and pleuropneumonia also become possible hostages of this ailment.
Patients with metabolic disorders due to a lack of potassium and magnesium, as well as other patients who have suffered poisoning with pesticides, can also earn intestinal paresis. Diabetes, thrombosis of mesenteric vessels and embolism are precursors of paralytic intestinal obstruction. Paresis of the intestine can manifest itself in unhealthy kidneys or dangerous lung diseases. It can be myocardial infarction, pneumonia, as well as various fractures of the ribs.
This disorder is characterized by violations of the motility of the stomach and large intestine after operations on the organs of the gastrointestinal tract. A significant restorative process in the large intestine can take three days. The functioning of the small intestine rarely can be completely disturbed. The restoration of her motor skills usually takes several hours after the operation.
There are three main stages of development of intestinal paresis. The first stage is characterized by oppression of peristalsis, at this stage there is paralytic intestinal obstruction. The second stage is characterized by intestinal stasis, when the intestinal pressure is significantly increased due to accumulation of gas and liquid in the intestinal lumen. The third stage is marked by progressive intoxication and violent disruption of all organs and systems of man.
What is characteristic for intestinal paresis?
When the intestine paresis, the patient has severe pain and a noticeable bloating. The patient may be vomiting, and there may be a lack of stool and gas. In some cases, uncontrolled excretion of watery stool can be noticed. Significant painful sensations spread throughout the intestines, while pain does not give to neighboring organs and is always bursting, there is no peristalsis.
In humans, frequent vomiting of the contents of the stomach and intestines. Vomit can be with an admixture of blood, this often indicates the beginning of bleeding from the walls of the stomach and intestines or the presence of acute ulcers. At the patient because of strongly inflated abdomen breath passes in thoracal. Diagnosed tachycardia and, along with this, a significant reduction in blood pressure. Many patients complain of a strong thirst. / H How to treat intestinal paresis?
The main therapy for intestinal paresis is a constant nasogastric aspiration (suction of the contents through tuberculosis, absolute elimination of food and fluid intake through the oral cavity, intravenous transfusion, sparing use of psychotropic sedatives, and the refusal of opiates.
If this dangerous disease does not stop within a week, then the cause of the intestinal paresis can be mechanical in nature. In this case, the patient may be assigned a laparotomy.
The dynamics of paresis development and its transition to acute intestinal obstruction determine the course of treatment. Operative intervention should be carried out with extreme caution, guided by modern principles of sparing technique, then it will be possible to avoid the dangerous occurrence of postoperative paresis. If the risk of developing the paresis is quite high (acute pancreatitis, severe abdominal and lumbar injuries), then it is necessary to produce the necessary nasogastric aspiration.
In addition, it is necessary to use a special method of regional deactivation of sympathetic innervation with novocain. Therapeutic measures of the intestinal paresis also include various ways of stimulating intestinal motility. For example, a special massage of the abdominal wall or various kinds of compresses. With the help of unique curative enemas and artificial irritation of the direct intestine by the vent tube can also effectively activate the intestinal motility of the patient.
If the patient is diagnosed with a turn of the intestines, then the medications and stimulation of the intestine here will not help. In this case, an urgent operation is necessary. Surgical intervention should be performed as soon as possible, because the paralyzed part of the intestine can not atrophy when not receiving the required amount of blood.