Causes and symptoms of parainfluenza in children
Parainfluenza causes in children
Paragrippus is a weakly manifested syndrome of intoxication of an infectious disease that affects the epithelium of the mucosa of the upper respiratory tract. The most expensive beings – children – are very often affected by this disease.
The cause of parainfluenza in children is the eponymous virus, which differs from the influenza virus by weak variability. The course of the disease, like with the usual flu, is divided into several periods. The most dangerous for others is a patient who is on the stage of the last day of the incubation period and during the entire acute period of the course of the illness, which lasts about a week. As his usual fellow, parainfluenza is transmitted by airborne droplets, that is, enters the body with air, which contains the virus. The most sensitive to it are children from two to six years old, that is, younger children. If in the air there are droplets of saliva from an infected person or particles of dust with a virus, then, hitting the epithelium of the mucosa of the upper respiratory tract, the virus remains on its surface, after which the cells of the parainfluenza virus penetrate inside, as they are able to thoroughly destroy the upper layer of cells. At the site of infection begins to develop inflammatory process, there is swelling and accumulates slime. The virus from the site of implantation gradually invades the main bloodstream, causes headache, fatigue, fever, and a decrease in appetite. These symptoms of parainfluenza are general toxic reactions of the body. Then, if you do not take any action, the disease progresses, the immune defense mechanisms, both local and general, are weakened. Thus, in the child’s body, appropriate conditions are created for the formation of its own conditionally pathogenic flora, which helps to infect the bacterial flora that comes from the external environment, which causes complications. The virus continues to circulate in the bloodstream, the development of antibodies by the immune system gradually begins. These antibodies contribute to recovery. However, the children’s body produces antibodies in insufficient quantities, and therefore a weakened organism can not cope with the disease. Over time, the number of antibodies decreases and it is possible to relapse after a short period of time. Thus, the child falls ill with parainfluenza more than twice a year. It must be remembered that although it is impossible to prevent parainfluenza, it will not develop in children in severe form if the immune system works well enough.
Symptoms of parainfluenza in children
The first period of parainfluenza in children is incubation, it lasts about seven days. Parainfluenza begins sharply and is accompanied by high fever, general weakness, runny nose. The maximum temperature of 40 degrees Celsius reaches the temperature after two to three days from the time of infection. The general state of the body is usually satisfactory. The primary symptoms of parainfluenza in children, expressed in a decrease in appetite and weakness, are troubling, but not much. The clinical picture of the development of the disease is expressed primarily in the signs of epithelial lesions of the nose and pharynx. Appears a painful and dry cough, hoarse voice, the child has a stuffy nose purulent-mucous discharge. On examination, edematous and red pharynx, red and enlarged tonsils protruding from the edges of the palatine arch are visible. Often among the first symptoms of parainfluenza, children have a false croup syndrome, as the trachea mucosa is affected and a reflex spasm of its muscles arises. Like many other diseases, children can have pragmpric in three forms: mild, heavy. With a mild form, the temperature rises to 37.5 degrees Celsius, a stuffy nose, a sore throat, a dry cough.
The moderate course of the illness suggests a temperature of 38 or 39 degrees Celsius, moderate intoxication, more pronounced than with mild form, cough and runny nose.
Severe form of the disease is very rare.
Uncomplicated, light and heavy parainfluenza continue for seven to ten days. Of the total time of the course of the disease for a period of pronounced fever, as well as intoxication, no more than three days are allowed. The disappearance of cough, runny nose and sore throat is observed after about a week or 10 days.
In infants, parainfluenza symptoms are not pronounced. The disease is manifested by inflammation of the upper respiratory tract. The child has a stuffy nose, a runny nose, accompanied by a serous-purulent discharge, a hoarse voice, a wet cough. Also need to pay attention to the health of the child with frequent regurgitation during meals. The strongest immunity is enjoyed by children under six months of age. They the least likely to be infected with parainfluenza. Infants are very rare complications, and the disease lasts no longer than a week.
The basis for the diagnosis is an examination and assessment of the epidemiological situation. It takes into account the emergence of acute fever, catarrhal manifestations, pharyngootzillitis and croup syndrome, high fever, symptoms of intoxication. Specific methods of diagnosis include a virus found in the blood. But the duration and laboriousness of such analyzes excludes their practical application. A distinctive parainfluenza syndrome is the manifestation of signs of a general diagnosis of it.
Parainfluenza complications in children
In the absence of parainfluenza treatment, children develop various complications, manifested in the appearance sinusitis, sore throat, pneumonia and other bacterial infections. The occurrence of such complications of parainfluenza in children adversely affects both their general condition and the development of the child. In this case, fever is increased, the temperature rises, it rises to high values, the symptoms of intoxication become heavier.
When pneumonia occurs, the temperature reaches 39 degrees Celsius, chills appear, severe weakness, and dizziness often occurs. Cough becomes wet, separation of purulent-mucous sputum begins, dyspnea appears, the frequency of contractions of the heart muscle increases, with a deep inspiration or exhalation often there are painful sensations in the chest. As a rule, they pass or decrease, if the patient lays on the side in which the pain is localized, the pleural reaction manifests itself.
The more severe complication of parainfluenza in children is expressed in the croup syndrome, which appears, as a rule, on the third or fifth day after the onset of the disease. Such complication proceeds very hard and is characterized by the defeat of the organism by secondary infection. The appearance of a secondary infection in the body is determined by a general analysis of blood characterized by leukocytosis with a shift to the left, it indicates that nonspecific immune defense has been activated, , which indicates the onset of the inflammatory process.
Parainfluenza treatment in children
The specific treatment of parainfluenza in children is considered effective by introducing a special influenza immunoglobulin However, the use of such therapy is practiced in the severe form of the course of the disease and usually symptomatic therapy is provided, which is sufficient. Children are hospitalized for croup syndrome and bacterial complications.
An excruciating dry cough is treated with “Kadellakom”, “Tusuprexom”, with viscous sputum – ATSTS, “Broncholithine”, “Bromhexin” and other medications. In catarrhal phenomena of the upper respiratory tract, instillation of vasoconstrictive drops into the nose is indicated. Recommended warm baths for the feet.
Dietary nutrition implies high caloric content without any restrictions. It is important to remember: food should be warm.
Prevention is medicated, similar to flu prevention.