The life cycle of the development of the pork chain
The life cycle of the development of the pork chain is rather complicated and requires a change of two hosts. The main host of the parasite is a man, and intermediate – a pig or a boar.
Adult mature sexually immature individuals are parasitized in the human intestine, releasing together with faeces segments containing invasive helminth eggs.
In the outer environment, the larvae of the chain come out from the segments. They fall into the body of pigs during the eating of animal waste, contaminated with oncospheres, or during the drinking of contaminated water.
After the larva enters the animal’s stomach, it is released from the shell and carries blood throughout the body. The overwhelming majority of the larvae settle in the pig’s muscles, where the future parasites begin to ripen. After 2-2.5 months, the oncosphere turns into cysticerci or into Finns (vesicles with larvae). Cysticerci remain viable in the pig’s body for 3-6 years, after which they become calcified and die.
When a person consumes meat with larvae of pork chopsticks, parasitic infection occurs. After the bubble enters the small intestine, a head is released from it, which, with the help of suckers and hooks, is attached to the intestinal wall and begins to grow. After 2 months, the parasite turns into a sexually mature helminth and begins to separate into the external environment segments with eggs. Thus, the life cycle of the pork chopsticks looks like.
Diagnosis of pork chain
Diagnosis of pork chain is built on the basis of three criteria:
In the feces of the infected person, there are segments of the worm .
There is a fact of eating pig meat that was poorly processed thermally.
Data of laboratory diagnostics. First of all, several studies of feces and perianal scrapings are carried out. Macroscopic examination makes it possible to distinguish the segments of the pork chain from the segments of the bovine chain. The former have 8-18 lateral branches, while the latter have 18-32 branches.
If the patient is confirmed with a diagnosis of “shadow”, then he is shown an in-depth study. For this, the patient is sent to ophthalmoscopy, CT of the brain, lung radiography, ECG and other procedures to exclude cysticercosis of other organs.
Antibodies to the pork chain can be detected using the following serological methods: ELISA, RNGA, RSK, NIRF.
Treatment of pork chain
Treatment of shinosis is carried out exclusively in stationary conditions, as there is a risk of developing extraintestinal infection.
Antibiotic therapy is provided by such drugs as:
Extract of male fern and pumpkin seeds.
After 2 hours after taking the drug, the patient is offered to take a salt laxative. This allows you to withdraw the segments of the worm together with the eggs outside. It is important that the patient adhered to dietary nutrition several days before the start of therapy and throughout the course of treatment. Optimum for such a disease is considered a table under the number 13.
After anthelminthic therapy, no less than 4 control studies of feces are performed at intervals of 30 days.
If a patient has single cysticerci in the brain or eyes, then surgery is indicated along with etiotropic treatment.
If the patient has an intestinal form of the disease, then the prognosis is usually favorable. The same applies to the cutaneous form of cysticercosis. When it comes to the defeat of the brain and other internal organs, the prognosis depends on the massive invasion and the specific location of the larvae of the chain.
After the completion of the course of treatment, the patient has to be on dispensary registration for another 2 years.