Parkinson’s disease – causes, symptoms, stages, how to treat?


Consequences of Parkinson’s disease

The consequences of Parkinson’s disease are very serious, and they come faster the more they start treatment:

  • Akinezia, then there is the inability to make movements. But, it is worth noting that complete immobility occurs rarely and in the most neglected cases.

  • More often people are faced with a deterioration in the performance of the motor apparatus of different degrees. \ / P

  • Constipation, which sometimes leads even to a lethal outcome. This is due to the fact that patients become unable to consume food and water in the right amount to stimulate the normal operation of the intestine.

  • Irritation of the visual apparatus, which is associated with a reduction in the number of blinking eyelid movements up to 4 times per minute. Against this background, conjunctivitis often occurs, the eyelids become inflamed.

  • Seborrhea is another complication that often plagues people with Parkinson’s disease.

  • Dementia. It is expressed in the fact that a person becomes withdrawn, inactive, subject to depression and emotional poverty. If dementia joins, the prognosis of the course of the disease deteriorates substantially. Diagnosis of Parkinson’s Disease

    Diagnosis of the disease involves three consecutive stages that allow you to make a diagnosis:

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      First of all, the doctor must recognize the syndrome of Parkinsonism and differentiate it from other nervous disorders. Specific signs that allow a doctor to determine Parkinson’s disease are: hypokinesia, combined with rest tremor, muscle stiffness and postural instability. In the next stage, it is important for the doctor to exclude all possible diseases, with similar symptoms. It can be oculogic crises, repeated strokes, secondary craniocerebral trauma, brain tumors, poisoning, etc.

    • The final stage of diagnosis is based on the presence of at least three signs. This is the duration of the disease for more than 10 years, the progression of the disease, asymmetric symptoms with predominance on the side of the body where the disease debuted, the presence of a tremor of rest, unilateral manifestations of the disease at the initial stage of its development. In addition, the patient should respond to levodopa therapy, which has been and remains effective for 5 years or more.In addition to these three diagnostic stages of a neurological examination, a person can direct to the EEG , CT or MRI of the brain. Also, rheoencephalography is used.

      Another very expensive method of detecting a decrease in dopamine concentration in the brain is the positron emission tomography.

      How to treat Parkinson’s disease

      A large number of drugs are used to treat the disease. However, it is immediately worthwhile to understand that it is not possible to cure pathology completely with their help. They are able to stop or temporarily inhibit its development, improve the motor activity of patients, give people the opportunity, as long as possible to remain capable and not bedridden.

      In frequency, a drug such as Levodopa is able to transform into the brain into dopamine. This helps the patient to reduce tremor and muscle rigidity, movements will become easier and more affordable to implement. Timely initiation of Levodopa treatment allows patients at an early stage to normalize their former activity. Those patients who have already been partially immobilized again get the opportunity to move around.

      Levodopa is often supplemented with carbidopa, which allows increasing the effectiveness of the first drug with regard to the effect on the brain. In parallel, carbidopa reduces the side effects of levodopa in relation to the body as a whole. In particular, the frequency of involuntary movements of the mouth, limbs, and face is reduced. Often, when a person takes Levodopa for a long time, he suffers from involuntary movements of the head, lips, tongue, from twitching of hands and feet. In order to reduce the risk of these and other side effects, many specialists suggest replacing Levodopa with Brompretin. Or, supplement the main therapy of Levodopa with this remedy.

      After a five-year period of taking Levodopa, a decrease in the effectiveness of this drug is observed. This is manifested in a sharp change in hyperactivity to complete immobility. The introduction of the next dose does not bring relief. To control such conditions, doctors reduce the dose of the drug, but inject it more often.

      In general, the diagnosis of Parkinson’s disease does not mean that a person will immediately be prescribed medicinal facilities. To begin with, the doctor will determine the rate of progression of the disease, its duration, severity, stage, the presence of concomitant diseases and other factors. At the initial stage, funds are assigned that are inferior to Levodopa in efficiency, they are Selegilin, Pramipexol and others. Despite their less pronounced effect on the first stages of the disease, these funds are quite sufficient.

      It should be understood that no effective treatment scheme would be effective, with time the disease will still progress. Therefore, relatives caring for a person with Parkinson’s disease, as a result, require specialized assistance.

      Surgical intervention is resorted to only when the patient does not tolerate conservative therapy.


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