Closed and open rib fracture


Closed and open fracture of the ribs

Fracture of the ribs is a severe chest injury. Like any external effect on a living organism, it can be very dangerous for human health, in case of untimely diagnosis and subsequent treatment. it is necessary to accurately represent the causes of the fractures, what symptoms accompany them, and what exactly to look for when providing first aid.

First, the prerequisites for this type of damage should be considered. Not the least role here is played by the age of the injured person, on which a certain level of elasticity of the chest depends. Most often, fractures occur in elderly people. Their bones become more fragile with age, and trauma can cause even a slight fall on hard tiles or on slippery asphalt in winter.

The risk of damage in a person 35 to 40 years old is also not uncommon, but in this period they happen a little less often and require for themselves more solid reasons. In young children, even with numerous fractures of the ribs, things are more positive. A high degree of elasticity, even with a strong compression of the chest, allows it to maintain its integrity. If we consider the general causes of such a serious type of damage, among them we can distinguish such as traumatism in the home, injuries at work, road accidents, osteoporosis, as well as tumoral and various infectious diseases.

Closed fracture of the ribs

Closed fractures are divided into two types. Simple fractures and complex fractures of the ribs. If everything is quite clear in the first case, then in the second case an incredibly sad picture appears. Broken patches of ribs penetrate into the internal organs of the person and damage them or multiple rib breaks lead to dangerous deformation of the chest.

With a simple fracture, the pain of the injured, as a rule, is sharply manifested when coughing, inhaling and exhaling, the slightest movement. If the fracture is complex, breathing will be superficial and rapid, the patient will feel very strong pain, in some cases it may come to shock. In case of detection of a closed simple fracture in a person, a specific anesthetic is first introduced. Then it is necessary to give the patient a semi-sitting position, to tie the arm bent at the elbow to the body in order to create pressure on the broken rib. With a complex fracture, sit the injured person half-sitting and, tilting to the side of damage, apply a good supporting bandage, fixing the arm near the body, so as to immobilize the ribs. In both cases, immediately call an ambulance.

Open fracture of the ribs

Open fractures of the ribs are extremely rare. Most often, they are caused by a gunshot wound or a strong blow to the chest. In the event of such dangerous fractures, bleeding of the wound increases. In this case, blood is excreted by foam. The first medical aid in this case will consist in the initial administration of an exact dose of promedol for rapid anesthesia, then after closing the wound with the palm of the hand, it is necessary to plant the injured one and tilt it aside injury. Then apply a special material for dressing, cover it with polyethylene or any other material that does not allow air, and only then carefully bandage.

The hand on the side where the damage is located must be immobilized, secured with a bandage bandage and tied to the body, so that the ribs are immobilized.

If this type of damage is received, pain in the chest, which is greatly enhanced in the process of breathing, talking and coughing. Because of what the breathing is quick and superficial. On the side where the lesion is found, the chest usually lags far behind in the act of breathing, and in the place of the fracture, in rare cases, one can detect swelling.

It is also possible to note in the traumatized person a certain symptom of “interrupted inhalation” when the pain does not end the attempt to take a deep breath – and the symptom of Payra (the pain that occurs when the slopes are in the undamaged side). Another important factor is the symptom of axial loads when, when squeezing the chest in the sagittal (front to back) and frontal (parallel to the plane of the support) planes, the pain arises not in the place of compression, but in the region of the bone defect.

Very hard anterior and lateral fractures. Often they are accompanied by serious disorders of pulmonary ventilation, as well as the violation of gas exchange in the human body. Fracture of the ribs from behind is much easier, in such cases, the violation of pulmonary ventilation, most often, is absent.

In case of damage to the lung, additional symptoms such as hemoptysis, subcutaneous emphysema (when air accumulates in the subcutaneous retina of the chest and then moves to other parts of the body), pneumothorax (when air or gases accumulate in the pleural cavity), hemothorax (also accumulation in the pleural cavity, not air, but blood).

If the fracture of several ribs, the patient’s affairs are much worse: the pulse becomes faster, the skin pale (often acquires a cyanotic shade). In order not to cause himself a sharp pain, the injured person tries to sit still, afraid of the slightest changes in the position of the body. Diagnose fracture of the ribs is possible only in clinical settings. Using X-ray, as well as collecting anamnesis and conducting additional blood and urine tests.


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