Causes, diagnosis, treatment and prevention of tinnitus

0
23

Causes, diagnosis, treatment and prevention of tinnitus

The noise in the ears can be different, the experts distinguish the following types:

  • Objective noise, which is heard not only by the person himself, but also by the doctor who examines him. This phenomenon is rare.

  • The subjective noise that only the person himself hears.

  • Vibrational noise that the ear itself creates, or structures around the auditory cells. Such noise can sometimes be heard by a doctor examining the patient.

  • Non-vibration noise that only a person can recognize. It arises from external or internal influences on the nerve endings of the auditory canal or the inner ear itself.

Some types of non-vibration noise are also distinguished:

  • Central noise with localization in the center of the head.

  • Peripheral noise that a person hears only in one ear.

  • Constant noise, which can appear after surgery with the intersection of the pre-collar nerve. Also, peripheral noise may be a consequence of atherosclerotic vascular lesions.

  • There are two-sided and one-sided noises.

From time to time, tinnitus is heard by 15 to 30% of the world’s population. And 20% characterize this sound as quite intense. It can bother people of different sex and age, but most often complaints are made by patients in the age category from 40 to 80 years. There is evidence that the doctor is addressing a worried buzz in the ears to a greater extent than men who work in enterprises with an increased level of noise pollution.

Noise can be different. Some people indicate that they hear a whistle, others indicate a ringing, some on a buzz, a tapping or hissing. Often, such patients are diagnosed with hearing impairment, they are concerned about headaches, insomnia can develop.

Other symptoms that can accompany tinnitus:

  • Nausea.

  • Dizziness.

  • Painful sensations.

  • Appearance of secretions from the ear canal.

  • Sensation of ear rasp from the inside.

  • Edema of the ear. In this case, the noise can be weak, barely discernible, or can be characterized by patients, like a deafening roar of a car or a waterfall.

    Despite the disturbing symptoms, many people are slow to consult a doctor. They adapt to this disorder, suffer from a sleep disorder, from a decline in performance, they have a change in the quality of life in general. Sometimes the noise in the ears does not even allow to perceive the speech of the other person. To endure such discomfort should not be, you need to contact the doctor and clarify the reasons for it. After all, in itself, noise in the ears does not arise, it is almost always accompanied by a weakening of the hearing.

    What are the pathologies of noise and pain in the ears?

    Tinnitus, accompanied by painful sensations, can occur with inflammation of the middle ear structures, when the lesions touch the eardrum, ossicles middle ear or mastoid process of the temporal bone. Also, pain and noise in the ears sometimes indicates the penetration of the structure of an organ of a foreign object. Often such objects become insects that can damage the external auditory canal.

    It happens that not one, but several internal structures of the ear are damaged, which causes intense pain.

    The following pathologies can be identified which can lead to pain and tinnitus:

    • Inflammatory process affecting the structure of the middle ear. In this case, the vessels expand and begin to pulsate, the swelling of the tissues increases, which leads to increased pressure on the tympanic membrane and provokes the appearance of noise in the ears. Painful sensations are a response to damage to the cells of the mucous membrane of the middle ear by pathogenic microorganisms.

      / li

    • Aero-otitis is an inflammatory change in the structure of the middle ear that develops against a background of atmospheric pressure differential. Extraneous sounds and pain are symptoms indicative of damage to the eardrum and ossicles of the middle ear.

    • Trauma of the tympanic membrane. The severity of the injury can vary from a slight shock to a violation of its integrity. In parallel, a person will complain about extraneous noise. In addition, often from the ear there is bleeding.

    • Mastoiditis is an inflammation of the mastoid process of the temporal bone. Pain is localized behind the shell of the ear, or in the ear canal itself. The noise is pulsating, due to the transfer of venous sinus oscillations to the labyrinth.

    • Myringitis is an inflammation of the tympanic membrane, accompanied by pain and noise in the ears. Extraneous sounds appear due to the expansion and pulsation of blood vessels that feed the eardrum.

    • Hearing in the auditory passage of foreign bodies. Insects can irritate the tympanic membrane or damage its integrity, which leads to a characteristic symptomatology. Diagnosis of tinnitus

      Since the causes that are capable of provoking the occurrence of noise in the ears can be very diverse, it causes certain difficulties in the diagnosis. Engaged in the search for etiological factors, leading to noise in the ears of the doctor otolaryngologist. You may also need to visit other narrow specialists: a cardiologist, a vascular surgeon, a psychiatrist, a neurologist, an endocrinologist, etc.

      The otolaryngologist examines the patient and interrogates him. It is necessary to clarify the presence of chronic pathologies of internal systems of organs (endocrine, cardiovascular, nervous). The doctor already receives information about the condition of the ears during the examination, can diagnose inflammation or trauma.

      Then the doctor will send the patient for further examination, which can include:

      • Audiometry. This method allows you to determine the severity of hearing using a special device, which is called an audiometer. The headphones are put on the patient, and a button is given to him. He must press it when he hears a sound. It will be published with varying frequency and intensity. The output will receive an audiogram that allows you to assess the severity of hearing.

      • Weber’s test. To determine the severity of hearing, a tuning fork is used. It is installed in the area of ​​the crown. If a person hears hearing sounds from the side of the ear, he is diagnosed with unilateral conductive hearing loss. When he better distinguishes sounds from the healthy ear, then he has internal auditory structures.

      • An X-ray examination of the skull will be assigned if the person is injured in the head.

        / li

      • The x-ray of the cervical spine is prescribed for suspected osteochondrosis.

        / li

      • Dopplerography of cerebral vessels is indicated for suspected atherosclerosis and ischemic injury.

      • The rheoEG allows to diagnose ischemic disease.

      • X-ray examination of the pyramid of the temporal bone is performed with suspicion of retrochlear painful hearing loss.

      • MRI or CT scan is performed with suspicion of tumor growth.

        / li

      • Tumors of the inner ear can be detected when performing a CT scan of the skull with contrasting.

        / li

      The patient will also need to take tests for laboratory tests:

      • Blood for thyroid hormones.

      • The general analysis of blood.

      • Biochemical blood analysis.

      • Blood for syphilis.

      Video: What warns about ringing in the ears?

      Methods of treatment

      To date, it is not always possible to completely relieve a patient of tinnitus, but modern methods of influence allow to control this process due to a whole complex of activities individually selected for

      . Then the patient’s life returns to normal, as it is possible to reduce the noise and ease the patient’s condition, freeing his consciousness from an obsessive auditory sensation. The person begins to perceive the unbearable discomfort previously unbearable for him as a normal extraneous everyday sound.

      The main methods of treatment (achieving control) of noise in the ears include pharmacological therapy, hardware method and psychotherapy. Pharmacotherapy means exposure to drugs: affecting blood circulation in the brain, anticonvulsant, neuroprotective and metabolically active, histaminolytic drugs, psychotropic drugs, zinc preparations, vitamins.

      The hardware method of masking noise makes it easier to tolerate, but it can not completely relieve the discomfort. There are also other methods of treatment, such as high-frequency electromagnetic interference, pneumomassage, low-power laser, surgical treatment.

      To get rid of tinnitus, you need to work on the cause of this symptom:

      • If the pathology is provoked by osteochondrosis, then pain relieves analgesics, in particular, Catadolon . Also, the patient is prescribed to take drugs from the NSAID group, for example, Nimesulid or Sirdalud. For arresting seizures, carbamazepine can be used or gabapentin.

      • When the noise in the ears results in a sulfur plug, it is necessary to flush the auditory canals using a physiological solution or a solution of furacilin. Perform the procedure using a special syringe Janet.

      • Treatment of vascular pathologies of the brain should be complex. The patient is prescribed nootropic drugs (Cerebramine, Cerebrolysin, Cortexin), drugs for normalizing cerebral circulation and improving metabolism (Cavinton, Xanthinal, Cinnarizine, etc.).

      • . If extraneous sounds in ears are a consequence of ongoing therapy, it is necessary to refuse to take such drugs. They need to be replaced by analogs that do not cause noise and ringing. Most often, the hearing in these cases can be fully restored.

      A good effect gives pneumomassage of the tympanic membrane, reflexotherapy, electrostimulation, acupuncture.

      Video: a few tricks how to remove tinnitus:

      If the hearing decreases against the background of the general aging of the body, then most often it can not be restored. The patient will need the use of hearing aids. If they do not allow normalization of hearing, then it is possible to install a cochlear implant.

LEAVE A REPLY

Please enter your comment!
Please enter your name here