Cough preparations are prescribed for a variety of diseases and conditions, with some of the diseases not accompanied by coughing, but demanding the withdrawal of accumulating mucus from the bronchi and lungs. For the correct choice of medication, you need to consult a doctor: there are coughing types that occur when the mucous throat irritates and does not require the use of expectorants, mucolytics or drugs that suppress the cough reflex.
Expectorants and mucolytic drugs are predominantly prescribed for a cough symptom, accompanying acute respiratory viral or bacterial infections of the respiratory system, bronchitis, pneumonia and other diseases.
Medicines for cough: classification
Medications with and the preparations based on plant extracts are divided into three groups depending on the effect: a group of antitussives used to suppress an increased cough reflex, a group of mucolytic drugs that provide sputum liquefaction, and expectorants for cough, which improve expectoration during sputum of normal consistency.
Expectorants for cough by the principle of exposure are issued:
- amplifying reflex response. The active substance irritatively affects the inner layer of the stomach, increasing the emetic reflexes to the level of peristalsis in the smooth muscles of the bronchi and the growth of the activity of epithelial cells, which help transport bronchial secretions from the cavities of the bronchi and beyond. It should be remembered that nausea and vomiting when taking medications of this type should not arise, the mechanism of action is focused on increasing production and removal of mucus. Nausea, vomiting, indigestion during the course of therapy are indications for cancellation of taking or correcting a dose. Among the drugs of this group are medicines with plant origin that contain extracts or parts of plants of thermopsis, altea, coltsfoot, plantain, rosemary, thyme, etc.
- having direct resorptive effect on the mucous surface cavity of bronchi. Can be of synthetic and natural origin: the presence of ammonium chloride, sodium hydrogen carbonate, potassium iodide or plant extracts (anise, rosemary, oregano, etc.) in the composition of ammonium chloride exerts an irritating effect on the internal surface of the bronchi, strengthening the secretion and withdrawal of bronchial secretions. li $
Mucolytic drugs are divided into the following groups according to the principle of action:
- reducing the density and density of bronchial secretion (eg mucolytic agents with acetylcysteine).
- improving mucus excretion lytic drugs with bromhexine hydrochloride, etc.).
- contributing to the reduction of secretion production in bronchi (mucolytic agents with glucocorticosteroids, m-holinoblokatorami, etc.)
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Expectorants with reflex action
Medications that have an indirect effect on the process of mucociliary transport and ensure the sanitation of the respiratory tract, reducing the phenomena of congestion of bronchial mucus . They are used in the treatment of children with caution because of the possibility of developing allergic reactions, respiratory depression, side effects. Drugs and forms Althaea Mukaltin, syrup Alteika, althea roots, Breastfeeding №3 (altey, sage, anise, pine buds) Thyme Bronchicum (syrup, tablets), Pertussin (mixture), Tussamag (syrup, drops) , herb thyme (raw materials), essential oil of thyme, Kodelak Broncho syrup with thyme, Stopptissin phyto Ledum swamp Bronchophyte (syrup), breast collection №4, expectorant collection Thermopsis Termopsol, Kodelak Broncho medicine, tablets for cough with thermopsis Plantain Breastfeeding №2 , a leaf of a plantain (raw material), Gerbion-syrup with a pod syrup, syrup with plantain extract and coltsfoot, Stopptissin phyto Ivy Syrups Prospan, Gedelix with ivy extract, droplets for inhalations Prospan When choosing drugs, it is necessary to take into account the limitations depending on the age of the child, different drugs have contraindications for children under 1 year, up to 3 years, up to 6 years. In accordance with the latest studies confirmed the high risk of bronchospasm in the intake of expectorant drugs by children under the age of 2 years, the best means for children of this age is abundant drinking, washing the nasal sinuses and providing fresh air. Special attention should also be paid to combined preparations combining strong synthetic components and active ingredients of plant origin: Kodelak Broncho, Koldreks Bronchi, etc.
Mukolitic “children’s” funds
What is mucolytic drugs? Sputum (bronchial mucus), accumulating in the respiratory system, reduces the efficiency of gas exchange and is a nutrient medium for the development of pathogenic microorganisms and the attachment of complications to the primary disease. Depending on the state of the body, bronchial mucus may be viscous, thick, accumulating in the cavity of the bronchi and lungs. Mucolytic drugs contribute to the change of bronchial secretion: reduce its density and elasticity, which facilitates the transport of mucus from the organs and pathways of the respiratory system. Mucolytic agents and expectorants have a different principle of action and are not assigned simultaneously in a standard clinical picture of the disease. Expectorants are advisable to be prescribed for sputum with reduced viscosity, which is achieved by taking mucolytics:
- on the basis of acetylcysteine (ATSTS, Fluimutsil, etc.).
- based on bromhexine hydrochloride (Bromhexine, Bronhosan)
- on the basis of carbocysteine (Libexin Muko, Fluicort, Fluditek)
- ambroxol-containing medications (Lazolvan, Ambrobe, Ambroghexal, etc.)
Combined mucolytic agents may also be supplemented with synthetic or plant-derived components that have an antipyretic shlevym, anti-inflammatory, antibacterial action on the body. Like antitussives for children, mucolytics and drugs that exert an expectorant effect are prescribed by doctors (pediatrician, otolaryngologist). Many medications are used with caution, given the age and possible side effects of the drug components.